Commitees & Staff


Summa Merit Awards

Magna Merit Awards



Author Index


Weekend Educational Course

Innovation in Body MRI

Organizers:John P. Mugler, III, Ph.D. & Caroline Reinhold, M.D.

Room 150 AG      08:30-17:15                                         Moderators:Shahid M. Hussain & Caroline Reinhold

08:30                       Optimization of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Body Applications

Dow-Mu Koh, M.D., M.R.C.P., F.R.C.R.


09:00                       Making the Most of 3T for Body MRI

                                Shreyas S. Vasanawala, M.D., Ph.D.


09:30                       MRCP: Techniques & Pitfalls

                                David J. Lomas, M.D., F.R.C.R., F.R.C.P.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


10:30                       Quantification of Diffuse Liver Disease

                                Scott B. Reeder, M.D., Ph.D.


11:00                       Cirrhosis & Lesion Characterization at MR Imaging

                                Shahid M. Hussain, M.D., Ph.D.


11:30                       The Post-Treatment Liver

                                Ihab R. Kamel, M.D., Ph.D.


12:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


13:30                       Imaging Algorithms for Adrenal Lesion Characterization

                                Hero K. Hussain, M.D.


14:00                       Renal Mass Characterization

                                Ivan Pedrosa, M.D.


14:30                       Functional Renal MRI

                                Diego R. Martin, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.P.C.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


15:30                       Acute Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy

                                Tara A. Morgan, M.D.


16:00                       Pelvic Floor Imaging

                                Katarzyna J. Macura, M.D., Ph.D.


16:30                       Prostate Carcinoma: Case Studies

                                Masoom A. Haider, M.D., F.R.C.P.C.


17:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Pre-Clinical MR of Cancer

Organizer:E. Jim Delikatny, Ph.D.

Room 155 EF       08:30-17:15                                               Moderators:E. Jim Delikatny & Kristine Glunde

08:30                       Tumor Metabolism

                                Kevin M. Brindle, Ph.D.


09:00                       Tumor Physiology

                                Michal Neeman, Ph.D.


09:30                       Tumor 'Omics

                                John R. Griffiths, D.Phil, F.R.C.P.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


10:30                       MR in Cancer Cell Models

                                Franca Podo, D.Sc.


11:00                       MRI/MRS in Animal Models

                                Harish Poptani, Ph.D.


11:30                       Tumor Lipid Metabolism

                                Kristine Glunde, Ph.D.


12:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


13:30                       Tumor Energy Metabolism

                                Klaas Nicolay, Ph.D.


14:00                       pH in Cancer

                                Robert J. Gillies, Ph.D.


14:30                       Molecular Imaging in Cancer

                                Dmitri Artemov, Ph.D.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


15:30                       Tumor Vasculature & Perfusion

                                Charles S. Springer, Ph.D.


16:00                       Novel Contrast: CEST, Multinuclear

                                Michael T. McMahon, Ph.D.


16:30                       Cancer Treatment Response

                                Sabrina M. Ronen, Ph.D.


17:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Perfusion Imaging: ASL, DCE & DSC

Organizers:Steven P. Sourbron, Ph.D. & Matthias J. P. van Osch, Ph.D.

Room 155 BC      08:00-12:35                                                         Moderators:Steven P. Sourbron & Matthias J. P. van Osch

08:00                       ASL: Measurement

                                Maria A. Fernandez-Seara, Ph.D.


08:25                       ASL: Single Subject & Group Analysis, Including Live Demo

                                Michael A. Chappell, D.Phil., M.Eng.


08:50                       ASL: Clinical Applications, Pharma ASL, Cognitive Neuroscience, etc.

                                John A. Detre, M.D.


09:15                       Cross-over: Measuring Tracer Extravasation with ASL & DCE

                                Keith St. Lawrence, Ph.D.


09:40                       Break - Meet the Teachers


10:05                       DCE: Measurement

                                David J.  Collins, B.A.


10:30                       DCE Post-Processing: What Model to Use?

                                Lucy E. Kershaw, Ph.D.


10:55                       Cross-Over: Measuring the Arterial Input Function in DCE & DCS-MRI

                                Anders Garpebring, Ph.D.


11:20                       DSC: Measurement

                                Roland Bammer, Ph.D.


11:55                       DSC: Post-Processing, Including Live Demo

                                Ona Wu, Ph.D.


12:20                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Single-Subject Neuroimaging

Organizers:David B. Hackney, M.D. & Karla L. Miller, Ph.D.

Room 151 AG      08:30-12:45                                          Moderators:David B. Hackney & Karla L. Miller

Single-Subject Neuroimaging: Methods & Challenges

08:30                       What's Normal? Accounting for Population Variability

                                Guido Gerig, Ph.D.


08:50                       Drawing A Line: Multi-Variate Classification

                                Maria J. Rosa, Ph.D.


09:10                       From Group Analysis to Individual Studies: Statistical Considerations

                                Jeanette A. Mumford, Ph.D.


What Can & Can't We Do Currently?

09:30                       Pre-Surgical Planning: Movement, Language & the Power of Localization

                                Susan Y. Bookheimer, Ph.D.


09:50                       Spatial Imaging Patterns in AD & Its Prodromal Stages Identified via Pattern Recognition Methods

                                Christos Davatzikos, Ph.D.


10:10                       Reliability of MR in Psychiatric Disorders

                                John D. Port, M.D., Ph.D.


10:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Rapid-Fire: What's Your Application?

11:00                       TBI Diagnosis & Prognosis

                                Pratik Mukherjee, M.D., Ph.D.


11:10                       Stroke & the Myth of Quantitation

                                Greg Zaharchuk, M.D., Ph.D.


11:20                       The Brain Stress Test

                                Richard B. Buxton, Ph.D.


11:30                       Real-Time fMRI, Brain States & Biofeedback

                                Xiaoping P. Hu, Ph.D.


11:40                       MRI in the Courtroom (pre-recorded)

                                Teneille R. Brown, J.D., B.A.


12:00                       Panel Discussion


12:30                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Challenges in Musculoskeletal Imaging

Organizers:Richard Kijowski, M.D. & William B. Morrison, M.D.

Room 255 EF       08:30-16:45                                              Moderators:John A. Carrino & Adam C. Zoga

08:30                       Wrist Ligament Pathology: Diagnosis & Pitfalls

                                Kathryn J. Stevens, M.D.


09:00                       Glenoid Labral Tear & Normal Variation

                                Lynne S. Steinbach, M.D.


09:30                       What is the Rotator Interval, & Why Is It Important?

                                Michael J. Tuite, M.D.


10:00                       Bone Marrow Edema: Injury Patterns

                                Christine Chung, M.D.


10:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


11:00                       Challenges in Diagnosing Meniscal Tear in the Knee

                                Nancy M. Major, M.D.


11:30                       Posterolateral Corner: "The Dark Side of the Knee"

                                Tetyana A. Gorbachova, M.D.


12:00                       Diagnosing Hip Labral Tear: Impingement & Dysplasia

                                John A. Carrino, M.D., M.P.H.


12:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


14:30                       OCD: What Is It & How Do I Describe It?

                                Miriam A. Bredella, M.D.


15:00                       Optimizing MRI for Evaluation of Cartilage Injury

                                Douglas W. Goodwin, M.D.


15:30                       Athletic Pubalgia: The Sportsman's "Non-Hernia"

                                Adam C. Zoga, M.D.


16:00                       Osteomyelitis in Diabetic Feet: Can You Be Confident?

                                Sandra L. Moore, M.D.


16:30                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Advanced Neuroimaging 1: Brain & Spinal Cord

Organizers:Olga Ciccarelli, Ph.D., Pratik Mukherjee, M.D., Ph.D. & Jay J. Pillai, M.D.

Room 255 BC      09:00-17:15                                                             Morning Moderator:Jay J. Pillai

Presurgical Brain Mapping 1

09:00                       Task-Based BOLD fMRI for Presurgical Brain Mapping

                                Christoph Stippich, M.D.


09:30                       Resting State Functional Connectivity fMRI for Presurgical Brain Mapping

                                Joshua S. Shimony, M.D., Ph.D.


10:00                       Diffusion Tractography: Technical Considerations for White Matter Mapping

                                Lauren J. O'Donnell, Ph.D.


10:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Presurgical Brain Mapping 2

11:00                       Intraoperative DTI White Matter Mapping: Neurosurgical Perspective

                                Christopher Nimsky, M.D., Ph.D.


11:30                       DTI vs. HARDI for Presurgical Fiber Tracking of the Motor Pathways

                                Jeffery I. Berman, Ph.D.


12:00                       Clinical Value of Mapping the Language Network with MR Diffusion Tractography

                                Alberto Bizzi, M.D.


12:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


                                                                                                Afternoon Moderator:Olga Ciccarelli

Spinal Cord Imaging 1

13:30                       Spinal Cord Imaging: Diffusion & Ultra-High Field

                                Julien Cohen-Adad, Ph.D.


14:00                       7T & Diffusion Imaging of the Cervical Spinal Cord

                                Eric E. Sigmund, Ph.D.


14:30                       Functional MR Imaging of the Spinal Cord

                                Patrick W. Stroman, Ph.D.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Spinal Cord Imaging 2

15:30                       Spinal Cord DTI: Applications to Multiple Sclerosis

                                Daniel S. Reich, M.D., Ph.D.


16:00                       Clinical Spinal Cord Imaging: Connecting Emerging MRI Technologies to Unmet Clinical Needs

                                Jonathan A. D. Farrell, Ph.D.


16:30                       Imaging Correlates of Spinal Cord Atrophy

                                Govind Nair, Ph.D.


17:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

MR Systems Engineering

Organizers:Richard W. Bowtell, Ph.D. & Michael S. Poole, Ph.D.

Room 250 BCEF 08:30-17:15                                         Moderators:Richard W. Bowtell & Michael S. Poole

System Overview & Magnets

08:30                       Overview of the MRI System

                                Paul R. Harvey, Ph.D.


09:00                       Magnets

                                Adrian Thomas, Ph.D.


09:30                       Siting the System

                                Stuart Clare, Ph.D.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Shims, Gradients & Field Monitoring

10:30                       Shimming: Fields, Coils & Control

                                Christoph Juchem, Ph.D.


11:00                       Gradient Systems

                                Michael S. Poole, Ph.D.


11:30                       Field Monitoring & System Calibration

                                Christoph Barmet, Ph.D.


12:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Devices in the Scanner & Low Frequency Interactions

13:30                       Overview of Device Interactions

                                Gregor Schaefers, Dipl.-Ing. (FH)


14:00                       kHz (Gradient) Interactions

                                Blaine A. Chronik, Ph.D.


14:30                       Modeling Low Frequency Interactions

                                Stuart R. Crozier, Ph.D., D.Eng.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


RF & Console Electronics

15:30                       RF Power Amps

                                Greig C. Scott, Ph.D.


16:00                       RF Preamps & Receive Chain Architecture

                                Stephan Biber, Ph.D.


16:30                       Console Electronics

                                Katsumi Kose, Ph.D.


17:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

MR Physics for Physicists

Organizers:Xiaoping P. Hu, Ph.D., Jürgen R. Reichenbach, Ph.D. & Jianhui Zhong, Ph.D.

Room 251 BCEF 08:30-18:15                                                  Moderators:Xiaoping P. Hu, Jürgen R. Reichenbach, Jianhui Zhong

NMR Physics: Firming Up the Foundations

08:30                       Quantum Mechanical Description of NMR - From Wave Function to Bloch Equation

                                Michael H. Buonocore, M.D., Ph.D.


09:00                       Application of Quantum Mechanics & Statistical Mechanics: Equilibrium Magnetization, Relaxation & Density Matrix

                                Adam W. Anderson, Ph.D.


09:30                       Practical Use of Multiple Quantum Coherences in Spectral Editing & 2D NMR

                                Robin A. de Graaf, Ph.D.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


10:30                       From Bloch Equation to MR contrasts: Relaxation & Physical bases of Tissue Contrast

                                John C. Gore, Ph.D.


11:00                       Other Contrast: Polarization Transfer, Chemical Exchange & Magnetization Transfer

                                Penny Anne Gowland, Ph.D.


11:30                       Bloch Equation in the Rotating Frame, Multidimensional Excitation

                                V. Andrew Stenger, Ph.D.


12:00                       Bloch-Torrey Equation & Diffusion Imaging (DWI, DTI, q-Space Imaging)

                                Jennifer A. McNab, Ph.D.


12:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Electromagnetic Fields in MRI: From Theory to Practice

14:00                       Maxwell Equations & EM Modeling

                                Frank Engelke, Ph.D.


14:30                       Static Magnetic Field: Magnetic Field (in)Homogeneity, Effects of Susceptibility, Demagnetizing Field & Lorentz Sphere

                                José P. Marques, Ph.D.


15:00                       Understanding Gradients from an EM Perspective: (Gradient Linearity, Eddy Currents, Maxwell Terms & Peripheral Nerve Stimulation)

                                Peter Dietz


15:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


16:00                       RF Field Generation, Coupling, Standing Wave Transmission

                                David O. Brunner, Ph.D.


16:30                       RF Field Transmission: B1-Field Non-Uniformity & SAR

                                Brian K. Rutt, Ph.D.


17:00                       B1-Shimming & Parallel Transmission

                                Ulrich Katscher, Ph.D.


17:30                       The Reciprocity Principle in NMR Reception

                                James Tropp, Ph.D.


18:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

fMRI: From Basic to Intermediate Brain Connectivity, Part 1

Organizers:Manus J. Donahue, Ph.D. & Karla L. Miller, Ph.D.

Room 155 BC      13:30-18:15                                             Moderators:Manus J. Donahue & Jeroen C. W. Siero

Zero to Hero: Beginner's Crash Course

13:30                       The BOLD Effect & Its Use for Detecting Brain Activity

                                Clarisse I. Mark, Ph.D.


14:00                       Acquisition, Reconstruction & Artefacts

                                Hans Hoogduin, Ph.D.


14:30                       Data Analysis Basics

                                Robert L. Barry, Ph.D.


15:00                       fMRI in Basic & Clinical Neuroscience

                                Beau M. Ances, M.D., Ph.D.


15:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Taking It Up A Notch: A Taster of Cutting-Edge Methods

16:00                       Neurovascular Coupling & Quantitation

                                Anna Devor, Ph.D.


16:30                       Pushing Temporal & Spatial Resolution

                                Pierre LeVan, Ph.D.


17:00                       Optical Measurements in Functional Neuroimaging

                                Joseph P. Culver, Ph.D.


17:30                       Data Mash-Up: ERPs, EEG/MEG & Neurochemistry

                                Matthew J. Brookes, Ph.D.


18:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Diffusion Goes Mad

Organizers:Adam W. Anderson, Ph.D. & Claudia A. Wheeler-Kingshott, Ph.D.

Room 151 AG      14:00-18:15                                                        Moderators:Adam W. Anderson & Claudia A. Wheeler-Kingshott

14:00                       From Diffusion Weighting to the Diffusion Tensor Indices

                                Gareth J. Barker, Ph.D.


14:20                       Advanced Models - Ball & Stick, Multi-Tensor, PASMRI & Etc…

                                Noam Shemesh, Ph.D.


14:40                       q-Space & Microstructure

                                Yaniv Assaf, Ph.D.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


15:30                       Single Subject Diffusion Analysis - ROI, Histogram, Tractography

                                Mara Cercignani, Ph.D.


15:50                       Distortion Correction & Registration Issues

                                James C. Gee, Ph.D.


16:10                       Group Studies of Diffusion Data - Cross Sectional & Longitudinal Challenges

                                Stephen M. Smith, D.Phil.


16:30                       Flip Charts - Meet the Experts


18:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Molecular & Cellular Imaging: From Bench to the Bed

Organizers:Kevin M. Bennett, Ph.D. & Chris A. Flask, Ph.D.

Room 155 EF       08:30-16:45                                            Moderators:Kevin M. Bennett & Chris A. Flask

08:30                       Basic Relaxation Mechanisms & Contrast Agent Design

                                A. Dean Sherry, Ph.D.


09:00                       Agent Synthesis

                                Hui Mao, Ph.D.


09:30                       Switching & Sensing

                                Mark D. Pagel, Ph.D.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


10:30                       Targeting Agents

                                David P. Cormode, D.Phil.


11:00                       Toxicity

                                Erik M. Shapiro, Ph.D.


11:30                       Theranostic Probes for siRNA & MicroRNA Therapies

                                Anna V. Moore, Ph.D.


12:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


13:30                       Technical Challenges to Detection

                                Peter M. Jakob, Ph.D.


14:00                       Applications

                                Christopher C. Quarles, Ph.D.


14:30                       Q & A Discussion


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


15:30                       Cell Delivery

                                Jeff W. M. Bulte, Ph.D.


16:00                       Regulatory Challenges

                                Zahi A. Fayad, Ph.D.


16:30                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers



Weekend Educational Course

Clinical Cancer MRI - Case-Based Teaching

Organizers:Elizabeth A. Morris, M.D., F.A.C.R. & Evis Sala, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 150 AG      08:30-17:15                                          Moderators:Fiona J. Gilbert & Elizabeth A. Morris

Cancer Detection Issues

08:30                       Finding Cancer in the Dense Breast: What Can MRI Add?

                                Fiona J. Gilbert, M.D.


09:00                       Rising PSA: Is There A Cancer?

                                Jurgen J. Fütterer, M.D., Ph.D.


09:30                       Cirrhotic Liver: What Is That Nodule?

                                Claude B. Sirlin, M.D.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Characterization of Incidental Lesions

10:30                       Characterization of Cystic Abdominal Lesions

                                Jay P. Heiken, M.D.


11:00                       Liver Lesions in Cancer Patients: What Are They?

                                Jeong Min Lee, M.D.


11:30                       Incidental Adnexal Masses in Cancer Patients: Act, Ignore or Follow?

                                Elizabeth A. Sadowski, M.D.


12:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Response to Therapy

13:30                       Breast Cancer Response to NAC: How Reliable Is It?

                                Nola M. Hylton, Ph.D.


14:00                       Bone Metastases Response to Therapy: MRI versus Nuc Med

                                Christina Messiou, M.D., F.R.C.R.


14:30                       Measuring Response to Novel Therapies: Thinking Differently

                                Mark Rosen,M.D., Ph.D.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Residual Disease versus Recurrence

15:30                       Rising PSA in the Treated Prostate Gland

                                Aytekin Oto, M.D.


16:00                       Pain in the Treated Pelvis

                                Yuliya Lakhman, M.D.


16:30                       The Role of Biological MR Imaging in the Treatment of Head & Neck Cancer

                                Suresh Mukherji, M.D.


17:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Recent Innovation in Cardiac MR

Organizers:Tim Leiner, M.D., Ph.D., E.B.C.R., Thoralf Niendorf, Ph.D. & David E. Sosnovik, M.D., F.A.C.C.

Room 155 BC      08:00-18:00                                                       Morning Moderators:Tim Leiner & Sebastian Kozerke

08:00                       Introduction to Today's Program & Survey


Recent Developments in Hard- & Software Relevant to CMR

08:05                       New Developments in MR Hardware

                                Boris R. Keil, Ph.D.


08:25                       New Sequences & Techniques

                                Krishna S. Nayak, Ph.D.


08:45                       Parallel Acquisition & Compressed Sensing

                                Sebastian Kozerke, Ph.D.


Evaluation of Cardiac Function

09:05                       The Evaluation of Cardiac Function - Unmet Needs

                                Dara L. Kraitchman, V.M.D., Ph.D.


09:25                       Techniques to Image Cardiac Function

                                Alistair A. Young, Ph.D.


09:45                       Research Promises: What Can We Expect in the Future? - Osman

                                Nael F. Osman, Ph.D.


10:05                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Evaluation of Cardiac Perfusion

10:20                       Clinical Needs: What Do We Want to See? - Carr

                                James C. Carr, M.D.


10:40                       Technical Foundations: How is It Done? - Jerosch-Herold

                                Michael Jerosch-Herold, Ph.D.


11:00                       Research Promises: What Can We Expect in the Future? - Meyer

                                Craig H. Meyer, Ph.D.


Myocardial Tissue Characterization

11:20                       Clinical Needs: What Do We Want to See? - Sosnovik

                                David E. Sosnovik, M.D., F.A.C.C.


11:40                       Technical Foundations: How is It Done? - Simonetti

                                Orlando P. Simonetti, Ph.D.


12:00                       Research Promises: What Can We Expect in the Future? - Strijkers

                                Gustav J. Strijkers, Ph.D.


12:20                       Break - Meet the Teachers


                                                                                                 Afternoon Moderators:Michael Salerno & David E. Sosnovik

Evaluation of Flow

13:30                       Clinical Needs: What Do We Want to See? - Hope

                                Michael D. Hope, M.D.


13:50                       Technical Foundations: How is It Done? - Westenberg

                                Jos J. M. Westenberg, Ph.D.


14:10                       Research Promises: What Can We Expect in the Future? - Wieben

                                Oliver Wieben, Ph.D.


Magnetic Resonance Angiography

14:30                       State-of-the-Art NCE-MRA: Goodbye to Gad

                                Vivian S. Lee, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A.


14:50                       Not So Fast: Recent Advances in CE-MRA

                                Ulrike I. Attenberger, M.D.


15:10                       Best of Both Worlds

                                Jeffrey H. Maki, M.D., Ph.D.


15:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


CMR in Clinical Trials

15:45                       The Value of CMR Over Other Modalities in Clinical Trials

                                Chun Yuan, Ph.D.


16:05                       Prognostic Value of CMR Versus Traditional Risk Factors

                                David A. Bluemke, M.D., Ph.D.


16:25                       Implications of Recent Trials for CMR

                                Victor A. Ferrari, M.D.


New & Emerging Techniques in CV-MR

16:45                       Fluorine-19

                                Shelton D. Caruthers, Ph.D.


17:05                       Carbon-13

                                Charles H. Cunningham, Ph.D.


17:25                       MR-PET

                                Timothy G. Reese, Ph.D.


17:45                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Everything You Wanted to Know about MR-PET

Organizers:Roland Bammer, Ph.D. & Marco Essig, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 151 AG      08:00-12:15                                                Moderators:Roland Bammer & Marco Essig

08:00                       PET-Instrumentation 101

                                William W. Moses, Ph.D.


08:20                       PET-Reconstruction 101

                                Richard M. Leahy, Ph.D.


08:40                       Tracer 101

                                Frederick T. Chin, Ph.D.


09:00                       PET-MR Hardware 101

                                Craig Levin, Ph.D.


09:20                       PET-MR Reconstruction

                                Georges El Fakhri, Ph.D.


09:40                       PET-MR Logistic Challenges & Opportunities

                                N. Jon Shah, Ph.D.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


10:20                       PET-MR in Drug Research

                                Alexander J. S. de Crespigny, Ph.D.


10:40                       PET-MR in Oncology

                                Nina F. Schwenzer, M.D.


11:00                       PET-MR in Neuro

                                Ciprian Catana, M.D., Ph.D.


11:20                       Body PET-MR

                                Alexander S. R. Guimaraes, M.D., Ph.D.


11:40                       Cardio-Pulmonary MR-PET

                                Ron Blankstein, M.D.


12:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers




Weekend Educational Course

Advanced Diffusion Acquisition: Targeted Methods

Organizers:Adam W. Anderson, Ph.D. & David Sosnovik, M.D., F.A.C.C.

Room 255 EF       08:00-12:45                                            Moderators:Adam W. Anderson & David E. Sosnovik

08:00                       Heart

                                Choukri Mekkaoui, Ph.D.


08:25                       Skeletal Muscle

                                John S. Thornton, Ph.D.


08:50                       Abdomen/Pelvis

                                Thomas L. Chenevert, Ph.D.


09:15                       Breast

                                Savannah C. Partridge, Ph.D.


09:40                       Break - Meet the Teachers


10:05                       Spinal Cord/Nerve Roots

                                Jürgen Finsterbusch, Ph.D.


10:30                       Intervertebral Discs/Cartilage

                                Jose Maria G. Raya, Ph.D.


10:55                       Fetal Brain

                                Patricia Ellen Grant, M.D.


11:20                       Post Mortem Brain

                                Tim B. Dyrby, Ph.D.


11:55                       2D versus 3D Acquisition Strategies

                                Stefan Skare, Ph.D.


12:20                       Closing Remarks


12:30                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Advanced Neuroimaging 2: Across the Lifespan

Organizers: Nadine J. Girard, M.D. & Rakesh K. Gupta, M.D.

Room 255 BC      09:00-17:15                                           Moderators:Nadine J. Girard & Rakesh K. Gupta

Fetal or Neonatal Imaging

09:00                       Developmental Neuroanatomy

                                Orit A. Glenn, M.D.


09:30                       Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

                                Petra S. Hüppi, M.D.


10:00                       Neonatal Seizures

                                Thierry A. G. M.  Huisman, M.D.


10:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Pediatric Neuroimaging

11:00                       CNS Infections

                                Niranjan Khandelwal, M.D.


11:30                       Inflammatory Disorders

                                Ashok Panigrahy, M.D.


12:00                       Metabolic Disorders

                                C. C. Tchoyoson Lim, M.D., M.B.B.S.


12:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Adult Neuroimaging: CBF/CSF, Flow/ICP

13:30                       From CSF Pulsation to MR Measurement of ICP: Methodology & Potential Applications

                                Noam Alperin, Ph.D.


14:00                       CSF Physiology & Its Relationship to ICP

                                Mark E. Wagshul, Ph.D.


14:30                       Beyond 4D MRA

                                Patrick A. Turski, M.D.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Geriatric Neuroimaging

15:30                       Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

                                William G. Bradley, Jr., M.D., Ph.D.


16:00                       White Matter Diseases of Aging

                                Maria A. Rocca, M.D.


16:30                       Differential Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Disorders

                                Marco Essig, M.D., Ph.D.


17:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

RF Engineering - Coils

Organizer:Tamer S. Ibrahim, Ph.D.

Room 250 BCEF 08:30-16:45                                                                  Moderator:Tamer S. Ibrahim

RF Basics

08:30                       Circuit & Transmission Lines

                                Scott B. King, Ph.D.


09:00                       Volume & Surface Coils

                                Ed B. Boskamp, Ph.D.


09:30                       Multi-Tuned Coils

                                Dennis W. J. Klomp, Ph.D.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


RF Arrays

10:30                       Receive Arrays

                                Steven M. Wright, Ph.D.


11:00                       Transmit Arrays

                                Mark E. Ladd, Ph.D.


11:30                       RF Modeling

                                Astrid L. H. M. van Lier, Ph.D.


12:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Emerging RF Coils & Technologies

14:00                       Cavity Resonators - Theory & Possibilities for MRI

                                Andrew G. Webb, Ph.D.


14:30                       Asymmetric Coils & Travelling Waves

                                Nicola F. De Zanche, Ph.D.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Live Construction of Coils

15:30                       Construction of RX Arrays

                                Boris R. Keil, Ph.D.


16:30                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

Imaging Acquisition & Reconstruction

Organizers:David O. Brunner, Ph.D., Kevin F. King, Ph.D. & Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Ph.D.

Room 251 BCEF 08:30-17:45                                                    Morning Moderators:Peter Börnert & Xiaohong Joe Zhou

Pulse Sequence Building Blocks

08:30                       RF Pulses Designs: From Basics to the State-of-the-Art

                                Adam B. Kerr, Ph.D.


09:00                       Gradients: What Can They Do?

                                Chen Lin, Ph.D.


09:30                       Dealing with Motion: Gating, Triggering & Sampling

                                Christopher J. Hardy, Ph.D.


10:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Contrast Manipulation

10:30                       Pulse Sequence Modules I (IR, DE, Spatial SAT & Chem SAT)

                                Graeme C. McKinnon, Ph.D.


11:00                       Pulse Sequence Modules II (Tagging, Labeling, Diffusion Sensitization & MT)

                                Eric C. Wong, M.D., Ph.D.


11:30                       Flow Contrast without Using Exogenous Agent

                                Yiping P. Du, Ph.D.


12:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


                                                                                                Afternoon Moderators:David O. Brunner & Kevin F. King

Advanced Acquisition Strategies

13:30                       Echo-Train Pulse Sequences: EPI, RARE & Beyond

                                David C. Alsop, Ph.D.


14:00                       Non-Cartesian k-Space Sampling

                                James G. Pipe, Ph.D.


14:30                       Spoiled & Balanced Gradient-Echo Sequences

                                Klaus Scheffler, Ph.D.


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Image Reconstruction

15:30                       Reconstruction of Non-Cartesian k-Space Data

                                John M. Pauly, Ph.D.


16:00                       Parallel Image Reconstruction

                                Mark A. Griswold, Ph.D.


16:30                       Phase-sensitive Image Reconstruction

                                Qing-San Xiang, Ph.D.


17:00                       Compressed Sensing

                                Michael Lustig, Ph.D.


17:30                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers



Silver Corporate Symposium: Bayer Healthcare

Plenary Hall          12:30-13:30      (no CME credit)           



Weekend Educational Course

A Practical Guide to MR Safety

Organizers:Michael Bock, Ph.D. & Mark E. Ladd, Ph.D.

Room 151 AG      13:30-17:45                                                   Moderators:Christopher M. Collins & Mark E. Ladd

13:30                       MR Safety: Where Do the Risks Come From?

                                Harald Kugel, Ph.D.


14:00                       Planning an MR Suite: What Can Be Done To Ensure MR Safety?

                                Emanuel Kanal, M.D., F.A.C.R.


14:30                       Screening the Patient: How to Deal with the Individual Subject

                                Anne Marie Sawyer, B.S., R.T.(R)(MR), FSMRT


15:00                       Break - Meet the Teachers


15:30                       High Field MRI: What Are the Special Safety Risks at Higher Fields?

                                Richard W. Bowtell, Ph.D.


16:00                       Contrast Agent Use in the Age of NSF

                                Stefan Haneder, M.D.


16:30                       MR Safety Testing of Devices: How to Separate the Good From the Bad & the Ugly

                                Roger Luechinger, Ph.D.


17:00                       MRI Safety Events: Lessons Learned

                                Robert E. Watson, M.D., Ph.D.


17:30                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Educational Course

fMRI: From Basic to Intermediate Brain Connectivity, Part 2

Organizers:Manus J. Donahue, Ph.D. & Karla L. Miller, Ph.D.

Room 255 EF       13:30-18:15                                          Moderators:Manus J. Donahue & Karla L. Miller

fMRI for Connectivity

13:30                       Task-Less fMRI: The Phenomenon of Intrinsic Signal Fluctuations

                                Catherine E. Chang, Ph.D.


14:00                       Network Discovery with fMRI: Analytic Choices & Their Implications

                                Vince D. Calhoun, Ph.D.


14:30                       Using Task-Absent Functional Neuroimaging to Study Brain Function

                                Arno Villringer, M.D.


15:00                       Connectomics: Parcellation & Network Analysis Methods

                                Gael Varoquaux, Ph.D.


15:30                       Break - Meet the Teachers


Connectivity in Practice

16:00                       Diseases of Connectivity

                                Francioso Xavier Castellanos, M.D.


16:30                       Connectivity Studies in Large Populations: Towards Defining Disease Mechanisms & Risk

                                Paul M. Matthews, Ph.D., D.Phil.


Roundtable: What Can Connectivity Contribute to Basic Neuroscience, Disease Mechanisms & Clinical Practice?

17:00                       Current Limitations, Pitfalls & Criticisms

                                Gael Varoquaux, Ph.D.


17:05                       Connectivity in Basic Neuroscience

                                Arno Villringer, M.D.


17:10                       Connectivity for Disease Mechanisms

                                Paul M. Matthews, Ph.D., D.Phil.


17:15                       Connectivity in the Clinic

                                Francioso Xavier Castellanos, M.D.


17:20                       Roundtable Discussion

                                All Speakers


18:00                       Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Opening Reception in Technical Exhibition

Exhibition Hall     17:45-19:15                                                                                                                         




Plenary Session

Plenary Hall          07:30-10:20                                                                                                                         

07:30                       Welcome & Awards

                                Thomas M. Grist, M.D., F.A.C.R., 2012-13 ISMRM President


08:20                       Lauterbur Lecture:   Beyond Fourier Encoding:  The Need, The Challenges & The Rewards of Breaking Out of K-Space

                                Klaas Pruessmann, Ph.D.


Panning for Gold: 20 Years of Innovation in MRI

Organizers:Garry E. Gold, M.D. & Thomas M. Grist, M.D., F.A.C.R.


09:05           0001.   Surface Coils

                                Joseph J. H. Ackerman, Ph.D.


09:20           0002.   Inversion Recovery & Early Contrast Studies in the Brain: A Brief History

                                Ian R. Young, Ph.D.


09:35           0003.   Contrast MR Angiography

                                Martin R. Prince, M.D., Ph.D.


09:50           0004.   Excitation K-Space & uTE MRI

                                John M. Pauly, Ph.D.


10:05           0005.   Fast Spin Echo

                                Jürgen K. Hennig, Ph.D.


10:20                       Adjournment


Traditional Poster Session: Cardiovascular

Exhibition Hall     10:45-12:45    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Electronic Poster Session: Neuro A

Exhibition Hall     10:45-12:45    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Study Group Session: Interventional MRI

Room 155 ABC   10:45-12:45    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Study Group Session: Hyperpolarized Media MR

Room 254 ABC   10:45-12:45    (no CME credit)                                                                                            



Young Investigator Award Presentations

Room 150 AG      10:45-12:45                                           Moderators:James F. M. Meaney & Karla L. Miller

10:45           0006.   Regional Mapping of Gas Uptake by Red Blood Cells and Tissue in the Human Lung Using Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI

                                Kun Qing1, Kai Ruppert2, Yun Jiang3, Jaime F. Mata2, G Wilson Miller2, Yun Michael Shim4, Chengbo Wang2, Iulian C. Ruset5, 6, F. William Hersman5, 6, Talissa A. Altes2, John P. Mugler, III1, 2

                                1Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States; 2Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States; 3Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; 4Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, United States; 5Xemed LLC, Durham, NH, United States; 6Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States


We have demonstrated an imaging method that permits regional mapping of the tissue and RBC fractions of Xe129 dissolved in the human lung, as well as quantitative comparison of tissue- and RBC-based ratios among subjects.  The 11-sec breath-hold acquisition was well tolerated by both healthy volunteers and subjects with obstructive lung disease.  Our preliminary results, although obtained from a small number of subjects in this exploratory study, suggest marked differences in the spatial distributions of Xe129 dissolved in tissue and RBCs among healthy subjects, smokers (including those with COPD), and asthmatics.

11:05           0007.   Dynamic Imaging of the Fetal Heart Using Metric Optimized Gating

                                Christopher W. Roy1, Mike Seed2, 3, Joshua F. P. van Amerom1, 3, Bahiyah Al Nafisi2, Lars Grosse-Wortmann2, 3, Shi-Joon Yoo2, 3, Christopher K. Macgowan1, 3

                                1Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Labatt Family Heart Centre, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto


A metric-based image reconstruction method is developed and validated for CINE MR imaging of the fetal heart. This method, known as metric optimized gating (MOG), is adapted from a previous study of fetal blood flow. It involves oversampling k-space and then reconstructing images according to an iterative model of the subject’s cardiac cycle. Image quality is optimized through the minimization of an image metric (entropy). Here, the approach is validated in healthy adult volunteers through qualitative and quantitative comparison to gold standard ECG gating. Dynamic CINE images of a normal fetal heart are presented.

11:25           0008.   3D Hemodynamics in Intracranial Aneurysms: Influence of Size and Morphology

                                Susanne Schnell1, Sameer A. Ansari1, 2, Parmede Vakil1, 3, Marie Wasilewski1, Maria L. Carr1, Michael C. Hurley1, 2, Bernard R. Bendok2, Hunt Batjer2, Timothy J. Carroll1, 3, James C. Carr1, Michael Markl1, 3

                                1Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States; 2Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States; 3Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States


Characterization of 3D blood flow demonstrated the influence of lesion size, shape and type on aneurysm hemodynamics suggesting the potential of 4D-flow MRI to assist in the classification of individual aneurysms.

11:45           0009.   Multi-Slice Cardiac Arterial Spin Labelling Using Improved Myocardial Perfusion Quantification with Simultaneously Measured Blood Pool Input Function

                                Adrienne E. Campbell-Washburn1, 2, Hui Zhang3, Bernard M. Siow1, 3, Anthony N. Price4, Mark F. Lythgoe1, Roger J. Ordidge5, David L. Thomas6

                                1Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, Division of Medicine and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom; 2Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom; 4Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; 5Centre for Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 6Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom


This study presents multi-slice cardiac arterial spin labelling using a new method of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification with blood pool magnetization measurement (“bpMBF quantification”). For bpMBF quantification, a direct measurement of the left-ventricle blood pool magnetization was used to approximate the blood input function into the Bloch equations. Simulation and in vivo results show that bpMBF quantification is robust to variations in slice-selective thickness and therefore applicable to multi-slice acquisition, whereas traditional methods are likely to underestimate multi-slice perfusion. This technique is applied to generate the first multi-slice MBF maps using cardiac arterial spin labelling.

12:05           0010.   Joint K-T Reconstruction and Oversampled Spirals for Single-Shot 2D Spatial/1D Spectral Imaging of 13C Dynamics

                                Jeremy W. Gordon1, David J. Niles1, Sean B. Fain1, 2, Kevin M. Johnson1

                                1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States


A least-squares based reconstruction is developed to simultaneously solve for both spatial and spectral encoding.  By jointly solving both domains, spectral imaging can be performed with a spatially oversampled single-shot spiral acquisition. Simulations indicate that accurate single-shot imaging is possible with oversampling factors greater than six, even in situations of substantial T2* decay and ΔB0. With lower oversampling, two shots are required for similar accuracy. Simulations were confirmed with in-vivo experiments, showing accurate single-shot spectral imaging with an oversampling factor of 7. The proposed approach increases scan efficiency by reducing RF requirements, allowing accelerated acquisition speed and improved temporal/spatial resolution.

12:25           0011.   A New Approach to Shimming: The Dynamically Controlled Adaptive Current Network

                                Chad Tyler Harris1, William B. Handler1, Blaine A. Chronik1, 2

                                1Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; 2Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada


Active magnetic shim coils, used to correct field inhomogeneities caused by susceptibility differences between tissue interfaces, are typically composed of sets of cylindrical layers, with each layer producing a magnetic field profile of a particular spherical harmonic. A radically different approach to shimming is to dynamically and adaptively control the flow of current over a given surface. This could be achieved with the use of a network of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). In this work, we present computer simulations demonstrating the benefits that a supplementary, region specific shim coil utilizing this approach can provide, and experimental results of a proof-of-principle prototype.

Extreme Encoding Methods

Room 151 AG      10:45-12:45                                          Moderators:R. Todd Constable & Mark A. Griswold

10:45           0012.   Reduced-FOV Imaging with Excitation Using Nonlinear Gradient Magnetic Fields (ENiGMa)

                                Emre Kopanoglu1, Ergin Atalar2, Robert Todd Constable3

                                1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; 2UMRAM, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; 3Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States


A reduced-FOV imaging method that employs nonlinear gradient fields for excitation is demonstrated using an additional gradient amplifier, a transmit array architecture and a head-sized nonlinear gradient coil. The method makes use of the non-Cartesian shape of the excitation profile to channel folding artifacts to outer sections of the image. Although scan time reduction is application specific, for a given example, around 60% reduction is shown. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the echo and repetition times, as well as the SAR are kept unaltered, compared to a conventional excitation approach.

10:57           0013.   Ultrafast Single Shot Imaging with Rotating Nonlinear Fields

                                Gigi Galiana1, Robert Todd Constable1

                                1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States


We present a novel approach whereby nonlinear gradient encoding can facilitate extremely fast imaging.  We describe a trajectory that encodes the entire 2D image with a single rotation of a strong nonlinear field.  Because this entails ramping through just one sine/cosine-shaped gradient pulse on each channel, the slew requirements of a single shot acquisition are minimal, and the acquisition can be compressed to a very short acquisition time without violating PNS limits.  Our calculations show that the rotating gradient strategy could potentially allow us to acquire a full 20cm 642 image in as little as 2ms.

11:09           0014.   A 3-Axis Phase Gradient Array for RF Encoded MRI Using the TRASE Method

                                Jonathan C. Sharp1, Qunli Deng1, Scott B. King2, Vyacheslav Volotovskyy2, Boguslaw Tomanek1

                                1National Research Council of Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2National Research Council of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada


The first 3-axis encoded RF transmit array for TRASE (Transmit Array Spatial Encoding) B1 imaging is presented. TRASE is a novel MRI method in which the spatial encoding is achieved by repeated refocusing by 180 deg pulses, where all B1 transmit fields are a phase gradient. The transmit array is capable of producing any one of 6 phase gradient fields (+X, -X, +Y, -Y, +Z, -Z). Imaging results in all three orthogonal planes are presented. Some possible applications of this new form of encoding include low-cost MRI (due to the elimination of the B0 gradient system) and microscopy.

11:21           0015.   Shear Wave Imaging by Using B1 Gradients

                                Esra Turk1, 2, Yusuf Ziya Ider1, Arif Sanli Ergun3, Taner Demir2, Ergin Atalar1, 2

                                1Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; 2National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Ankara, Turkey; 3Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, TOBB-University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey


In this study, the feasibility of using B1 gradients in detecting the shear properties of tissues at kilohertz range frequencies is shown. With this method, shear waves on stiff and small tissues can be detected with high resolution without frequency limitation faced up with in methods using B0 gradient coils due to the slow gradient switching times.

11:33           0016.   3D Imaging with Multidimensional Nonlinear Encoding

                                Maxim Zaitsev1, Sebastian Littin1, Anna M. Welz1, Feng Jia1, Chris A. Cocosco1, Andrew Dewdney2, Gerrit Schultz1, Jürgen Hennig1

                                1Radiology, Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 2Healthcare Sector, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany


To overcome present limitations of gradient performance and investigate unconventional encoding topologies a PatLoc (parallel imaging technique using localized gradients) concept was proposed recently. PatLoc relaxes requirements of gradient homogeneity in favour of local gradient strength. Multidimensional encoding (MDE) combines nonlinear PatLoc fields with traditional linear gradients and holds a great promise for accelerated imaging. In this work we propose using MDE for two phase encoding directions in 3D imaging, where a traditional linear gradient is used for the signal read out. We demonstrate a feasibility of this approach by implementing a radial-in-out scheme as a pure phase encoding strategy.

11:45           0017.   MRI by Steering Resonance Through Space

                                Angela Lynn Styczynski Snyder1, Curtis Andrew Corum1, Steen Moeller1, Nathaniel J. Powell2, Michael Garwood1

                                1Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; 2Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States


MR images are typically created by Fourier transforming signals that have been spatially encoded using frequency- and phase-encoding gradients. Recently, new spatiotemporal-encoding strategies allow direct image formation without FT by sweeping a resonance plane through time and space. Alternatively, it is demonstrated here that a combination of RF and gradient modulation can move a relatively isolated resonance region sequentially through space allowing for time-dependent echo formation and 2D imaging without FT.  The method, called steering resonance (STEREO), has the unique capability to treat each region in space independently, which can potentially be exploited to compensate extreme B1 and B0 inhomogeneity.

11:57           0018.   MR Fingerprinting:  Rapid Simultaneous Quantification of T1, T2, Proton Density and Off-Resonance Using a Spiral Trajectory

                                Dan Ma1, Vikas Gulani2, Nicole Seiberlich1, Jeffrey Duerk3, Mark A. Griswold2

                                1Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; 2Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; 3School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States


The purpose of this study is to quantify multiple MR parameters in a single acquisition in a short acquisition time by combining the MR Fingerprinting (MRF) with a rapid spiral readout. MRF is a novel approach that can quantify multiple parameters (e.g. T1, T2, proton density and off-resonance) of a material or tissue simultaneously. This study uses single-shot spiral MRF method to reduce the acquisition time to around 10 seconds. Because of the robustness of pattern recognition, the parameter maps have shown high rejection of severe undersampling artifacts.

12:09           0019.   MR Fingerprinting Using Spiral QUEST

                                Yun Jiang1, Dan Ma1, Renate Jerecic2, Vikas Gulani, 13, Nicole Seiberlich1, Jeffrey Durek3, 4, Mark A. Griswold1, 3

                                1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; 2Siemens AG,Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany; 3Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; 4Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States


MR Fingerprinting is a novel imaging concept to generate multiple parametric maps simultaneously by matching spatially and temporally incoherent signals to a pre-calculated dictionary. Here we explore MR fingerprinting using a QUick Echo Split Technique (QUEST) with a spiral trajectory to simultaneously generate T1, T2 and M0 maps. QUEST MRF achieves unique signal evolution by acquiring the maximum possible number of echoes for a small number of RF pulses. The results show that this method can be used to generate accurate quantitative maps and demonstrates the potential of MRF to explore unlimited pulse sequence designs.

12:21           0020.   Overhauser Enhanced MR Elastography at Very Low Field

                                Najat Salameh1, 2, Mathieu Sarracanie, 23, Brandon Dean Armstrong, 23, Arnaud Comment4, Matthew S. Rosen, 23

                                1Institut de Physique des Systèmes Biologiques, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, United States; 3Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States; 4Institut de Physique des Systèmes Biologiques, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland


MR Elastography (MRE) suffers from a  major limitation: its low sensitivity due to the use of long TE's leading to long acquisition times. This drawback hinders its use in daily routine by radiologists. The aim of the present study was to show the feasibility of enhancing the signal via the Overhauser effect to shorten MRE acquisition times.

12:33           0021.   Driver-Free Assessment of Liver Stiffness Using Fast Strain-Encoded (FSENC) MRI

                                Ahmed A. Harouni1, Ahmed M. Gharib2, Nael F. Osman3, Roderic I. Pettigrew2, Khaled Z. Abd-Elmoniem2

                                1Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; 2NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; 3Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States


Liver fibroses is a major health concern in the US. and is reversible in early stages. Therefore, there is a need for a non-invasive screening tool. We propose to use the myocardium’s intrinsic motion as a source of vibration with fast strain-encoded MRI to measure the strain through the liver’s left lobe adjacent to the myocardium. Phantom experiments and in-vivo experiments were conducted. Results show significant difference between healthy subjects and fibrotic patient (p<0.0001). Peak strain was 13.5% ± 0.86%, 4.35% ± 2.88% for healthy subjects and fibrotic patient, respectively. Reproducibility experiments were also performed and showed no significant difference between repeated measured peak strain.

Renal MRI

Room 155 EF       10:45-12:45                                                Moderators: Andrew B. Rosenkrantz & Shreyas S. Vasanawala

10:45           0022.   Renal Diffusion and Perfusion in Cardiorenal Syndrome.

                                Nur Farhayu Omar1, Eleanor F. Cox1, Tobias Breidthardt2, Iain B. Squire3, Aghogho Odudu4, Mohamed Tarek Eldehni4, Chris McIntyre4, Susan T. Francis1

                                1Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom; 2Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, Leicestershire, United Kingdom; 4Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, Derbyshire, United Kingdom


Diffusion and perfusion in the kidneys are assessed in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) patients and healthy volunteers in order to determine whether renal dysfunction in CRS is due to changes in tissue structure (fibrosis) or haemodynamic changes. Strong correlations are found between ADC, fpD*, renal artery flux and cortical perfusion with eGFR. We find that flow (fpD*) contributes to the changes in ADC, but structural changes indicated by a change in T1 are not reflected in D alone.

10:57           0023.   Susceptibility Tensor Imaging of the Renal Tubule

                                Luke Xie1, 2, Russell Dibb1, 2, Wei Li3, Chunlei Liu, 23, G. Allan Johnson1, 2

                                1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; 2Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States; 3Brain Imaging Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States


We applied susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) to study the complex nephron structure in a mouse kidney. When using DTI, we found that it was only able to track tubules in the inner medulla. STI, on the other hand, was able to overcome this limitation and tracked tubules beyond the inner medulla. The kidney was imaged with 17 orientations using a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence at 9.4T. Measures of anisotropy in tortuous and straight segments were consistent with the uriniferous tubule structure determined from microscopy. STI provides a particularly novel contrast mechanism to assess the tubule microstructure and composition.

11:09           0024.   Changes in Intrarenal Oxygenation as Evaluated by BOLD MRI in a Rat Biliary Obstruction Model

                                Mingshu Yang1, Min Ji1, Bin Yang1, Li Wang1, Chunmei Xia2, Lixia Yang3, Zhongwei Qiao1, Ed X. Wu4

                                1Department of Radiology, Children Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 3Department of Radiology, Xuhui Center Hospital, Shanghai, China; 4Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China


Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI was shown to allow non-invasive observation of renal oxygenation. Experimental bile duct ligation has been widely used as an animal model to evaluate the renal molecular changes. This study aims to investigate the alteration of R2* in the kidney of rat induced by biliary duct ligation. We observed that the medullary R2* in model group is higher than that in controls, but the difference in cortical R2* was not significant between two groups. Our results implicated that acute biliary obstruction induced by bile duct ligation caused an alteration of renal medullar oxygenation.

11:21           0025.   Effects of an X-Ray Contrast Medium Administration on Renal T2* and T2

                                Andreas Pohlmann1, Karen Arakelyan1, 2, Kathleen Cantow2, Jan Hentschel1, Bert Flemming2, Mechthild Ladwig2, Erdmann Seeliger2, Thoralf Niendorf1, 3

                                1Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Institute of Physiology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charité, Berlin, Germany; 3Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany


X-ray contrast media (CM) are usually well tolerated, but can cause acute kidney injury (AKI). Medullary hypoxia is pivotal in the pathophysiology of CM-induced AKI. BOLD-MRI is increasingly used to monitor kidney oxygenation. We studied the effects of injecting a CM into the thoracic aorta on renal T2*/T2 in rats. The CM effects were benchmarked against pathophysiologically relevant reversible interventions: brief periods of hypoxia and aortic occlusion. T2*/T2 mappings during hypoxia and aortic occlusion correspond qualitatively with previous data obtained by invasive tissue pO2 measurements. T2* mapping after CM corroborates invasively obtained data and demonstrates that CM affects medullary oxygenation.

11:33           0026.   Evaluation of Nephrotoxicity of Iso- Versus Low-Osmolar Iodine Contrast Media by BOLD and Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

                                Yuan-Cheng Wang1, Shenghong Ju1, Gao-Jun Teng1

                                1Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China


Arguments on the nephrotoxicity of iodixanol (iso-osmolality) and iopromide (low-osmolality) have not stopped so far. We performed a study to evaluate the diffusion and oxygenation of the two kinds of contrast medias using diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI. The results indicate that iodixanol resulted in a more significant decrease of renal diffusion and oxygenation than iopromide did in the setting of mild dehydration on rabbits. This suggests that iodixanol may not be as safe as people used to think and further study is still needed.

11:45           0027.   High Temporal Resolution Mouse Renal Blood Flow (RBF) Imaging with Pseudo-Continuous ASL (PCASL) at Very High Field

                                Guillaume Duhamel1, Valentin Prevost1, Olivier M. Girard1, Virginie Callot1, Patrick J. Cozzone1

                                1CRMBM / CNRS 7339, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France


Assessment of the renal microvascular perfusion is a valuable tool for many diseases which have shown to be linked to damage or loss of renal microvessels. ASL had great potential for measuring renal blood flow in humans and animal models. Most of the reported animal studies were performed with the moderately sensitive FAIR EPI technique, moreover limited to transverse imaging only. In this study, we investigated mouse RBF measurements using pseudo-continuous ASL in combination with fast imaging, with the aim of determining the most adapted protocol relative to sensitivity, robustness to motion, reduced scan time, multislice acquisition and imaging orientation.

11:57           0028.   Assessment of Experimental Acute Kidney Injury by Fast Interleaved Monitoring of T2* and T2

                                Andreas Pohlmann1, Jan Hentschel1, Mandy Fechner2, Uwe Hoff2, Gordana Bubalo2, Karen Arakelyan1, 3, Kathleen Cantow3, Erdmann Seeliger3, Bert Flemming3, Lajos Marko4, Helmar Waiczies1, 5, Sonia Waiczies1, 5, Wolf Hagen Schunck4, Dominik N. Mueller4, 6, Duska Dragun2, Thoralf Niendorf1, 5

                                1Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charité, Berlin, Germany; 3Institute of Physiology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charité, Berlin, Germany; 4Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 5Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 6Nikolaus-Fiebiger-Center, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly caused by renal hypoperfusion. This ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by a mismatch of local tissue oxygen supply and demand. There is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms of the initial phase of I/R injury in AKI. Mapping of T2*/T2, known to be sensitive to blood oxygenation, might elucidate spatio-temporal pathophysiological changes in the kidney. We demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of continuous, high temporal resolution parametric MRI monitoring of renal I/R in rats. Observations in the early reperfusion phase promise to offer new insights into the pathogenesis of AKI.

12:09           0029.   Combination of Non-Invasive Parametric MRI and Invasive Physiological Measurements: Towards a Hybrid and Integrated Approach for Investigation of Acute Kidney Injury

                                Jan Hentschel1, Kathleen Cantow2, Andreas Pohlmann1, Karen Arakelyan, 12, Bert Flemming2, Mechthild Ladwig2, Erdmann Seeliger2, Uwe Hoff3, Pontus B. Persson2, Thoralf Niendorf1, 4

                                1Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Institut für Vegetative Physiologie, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany; 3Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow- Klinikum, Berlin, Germany; 4Experimental and Clinical Research Center a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty, and the Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany


Renal medullary hypoperfusion and hypoxia play a pivotal role in acute kidney injury. Invasive but quantitative physiological methods are used for targeted probing of kidney perfusion as well as regional perfusion and oxygenation in animals in vivo. We set out to combine invasive techniques and non-invasive MRI in an integrated hybrid setup with the ultimate goal to monitor and interpret parametric MR and physiological parameters by means of standardized interventions. Our preliminary results demonstrate that simultaneous measurement of tissue pO2, flux, renal blood flow, arterial blood pressure and MRI is feasible.

12:21           0030.   Feasibility of Single Breath-Hold Renal Perfusion Imaging at 7T

                                Xiufeng Li1, Carl Snyder1, Pierre-Francois Van de Moortele1, Kamil Ugurbil1, Gregory J. Metzger1

                                1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States


Due to the intrinsically low signal noise ratio nature of ASL imaging, lengthy signal averaging and correspondingly long imaging acquisition times are usually needed in renal perfusion imaging at lower fields, which not only makes imaging sensitive to physiological motion but also imposes critical limitations on its application in patients. The increased SNR, prolonged longitudinal relaxation times, and better parallel imaging performance of ultra high field provide the potential to reduce imaging acquisition time and motion-associated artifacts. The feasibility of single breath-hold renal ASL perfusion imaging at 7T was evaluated and reported in this abstract.

12:33           0031.   Arterial Spin Labeling for Quantification and Monitoring of Renal Blood Flow Changes After Acute Kidney Injury in Mice – Comparison with Histopathology and Renal Function

                                Katja Hueper1, Marcel Gutberlet1, Dagmar Hartung1, Song Rong2, Hermann Haller2, Martin Meier3, Frank Wacker1, Faikah Gueler2

                                1Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 2Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 3Institute of Animal Science, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany


We investigated whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) allows monitoring renal perfusion impairment after acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice. Moderate and severe AKI were induced and renal blood flow (RBF) was measured by ASL using a 7T scanner. At day 7, RBF was significantly reduced after moderate and severe AKI. RBF returned to baseline at d28 after moderate, whereas it remained significantly reduced after severe AKI. RBF-changes correlated with impairment of renal function, renal fibrosis and kidney volume loss. Thus, ASL may help to non-invasively detect renal perfusion impairment and presence and severity of AKI at an early time point.

fMRI Connectivity: Mechanisms & Analysis

Room 255 EF       10:45-12:45                                              Moderators:Xiaoping P. Hu & Ed X. Wu

10:45           0032.   Anatomical/Axonal Basis and Plasticity of Resting-State fMRI Connectivity in an Experimental Model of Corpus Callosum Transection

                                Iris Y. Zhou1, 2, Y. X. Liang3, Russell W. Chan1, 2, Shujuan Fan1, 2, Patrick P. Gao1, 2, Joe S. Cheng1, 2, K. F. So3, Ed X. Wu1, 2

                                1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; 3Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China


This study explored the role of anatomical/axonal connections in resting-state fMRI connectivity and the plasticity of resting-state networks. Animal models of complete and partial corpus callosum (CC) transection were studied with rsfMRI in conjunction with intracortical EEG recording and Mn2+ tracing of axonal connections. At post-surgery day 7, resting-state connectivity significantly decreased in the cortical areas whose callosal connections were severed. At post-surgery day 28, disrupted connectivity was partly restored in partial transection group, likely through the spared pathways in remaining CC. These rsfMRI findings were paralleled by EEG recording and.  Mn2+ tracing results. These results directly support the primary and indispensable role of anatomical/axonal connections via CC in resting-state fMRI connectivity, and that anatomical connection based resting-state networks can be plastic.

10:57           0033.   Caffeine-Induced Reductions in the Resting-State fMRI Global Signal Reflect Increases in EEG Vigilance Measures

                                Chi Wah Wong1, Valur Olafsson1, Omer Tal1, Thomas Liu1

                                1Center for Functional MRI, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States


A prior study has shown that caffeine reduces the amplitude of the global signal in resting-state fMRI and enhances the anti-correlation between the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Task Positive Network (TPN). In this study, we used simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate the neural-electrical basis of these caffeine-related effects. We found that the caffeine-induced changes in the global signal amplitude are negatively correlated with changes in vigilance derived using EEG.

11:09           0034.   Clustered Spontaneous Coordinated Network Events Contribute to Functional Connectivity

                                Thomas Allan1, Matthew J. Brookes1, Susan T. Francis1, Penelope A. Gowland1

                                1SPMMRC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom


The origins of functional connectivity are unknown but contributions from spontaneous neural events may have an effect of typical measures of functional connectivity. These spontaneous events, whether they are externally stimulated or internally driven can evoke bilateral responses in multiple network nodes. Here we show that spontaneous BOLD events, detected using paradigm free mapping, have a significant contribution to functional connectivity on a short window correlation analysis and that these events are clustered in space and do not require the entire network to perform a task, highlighting substructures within large scale networks.

11:21           0035.   Multiple Time Scale Complexity Analysis of Resting State Fluctuations

                                Robert Smith1

                                1Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States


The present study explores multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis to investigate the entropy of resting state fMRI signals across multiple time scales. MSE analysis distinguishes random noise from complex signals since the entropy of the former decreases with larger time scales while the latter signal maintains its entropy due to “self-similarity" across time scales. The results show enhanced contrast in entropy between gray and white matter, as well as between age groups using MSE analysis.

11:33           0036.   Finite Number of Brain Network Configurations Revealed from Time-Varying Connectivity Assessment of Resting State fMRI

                                Hao Jia1, Xiaoping P. Hu2, Gopikrishna Deshpande1, 3

                                1AU MRI research center, ECE dept., Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States; 2Coulter Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory Univeristy, Atlanta, GA, United States; 3Dept. of Psychology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States


We assume connectivity dynamics derived from fMRI have finite, quasi-stable configurations based on previous EEG/fMRI evidence. We tested this using a unified framework involving dynamic estimation of whole brain functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC), evolutionary clustering and segmentation into finite number of patterns. Sliding window method was used to determine FC and dynamic granger method was used for EC. Result evidenced above hypothesis and there are 2-3 dominant modes for both FC and EC. Main FC modes feature default mode network, visual, sub-cortical and motor networks, while sensory regions to frontal cortex interaction is revealed by EC modes.

11:45           0037.   Investigation of the Neural Basis of the Default Mode Network Using Parallel Independent Component Analysis of Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Data

                                Sreenath Pruthviraj Kyathanahally1, Nurhan Erbil1, Vince D. Calhoun2, 3, Gopikrishna Deshpande1, 4

                                1AU MRI Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States; 2The Mind Research Network and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, United States; 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, AL, United States; 4Department of Psychology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States


Previous work using simultaneous EEG/fMRI has shown that the slow temporal dynamics of resting state networks (RSNs) obtained from fMRI are correlated with smoothed and down sampled versions of various EEG features such as microstates and band-limited power and these RSNs not only exist in the low frequency but also exist in high frequency. In this study, to test this critical hypothesis, we acquired a simultaneous EEG/fMRI from which involved fast fMRI sampling using multiband EPI and EPI acquisition. We found DMN in both MB-EPI and EPI acquisition however the correlation coefficient between two modalities in MB-EPI was higher.

11:57           0038.   Intrinsic Connectivity Network Activity Revealed by the Independent Modelling of the Primary and Post-Stimulus Components of the BOLD Response

                                Karen J. Mullinger1, Stephen D. Mayhew2, Andrew P. Bagshaw2, Richard W. Bowtell3, Susan T. Francis3

                                1SPMMRC, School of Physics and Astronomy , University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 2BUIC, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; 3SPMMRC, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom


Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) exist during both stimulation and rest, however little is known about the changes in their activity in the transition between task and rest. Simultaneous EEG-BOLD measures provide an interesting new method to study this transition. We demonstrate that during median-nerve stimulation BOLD modulations, indexed by EEG mu power, occur over a number of ICNs, whilst post-stimulus modulations are specific to the bilateral sensorimotor network. We hypothesize that the post-stimulus activity represents re-setting of the entire sensorimotor network, providing a mechanism for this ICN to return to resting-state activity from the lateralised activity driven by stimulation.

12:09           0039.   Spontaneous Co-Activation Patterns of the Brain Revealed by Selectively Averaging Resting-State fMRI Volumes

                                Xiao Liu1, Catie Chang1, Jeff H. Duyn1

                                1Advanced MRI section, LFMI, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States


In this study, we identified 30 spontaneous co-activation patterns (CAPs) by regrouping and then averaging resting-state fMRI volumes. The CAPs present interesting information regarding spontaneous brain activity at distinct time points: e.g., multiple default mode network (DMN) CAPs with distinct features, multiple “task-positive” CAPs anti-correlated with DMN region, very specific thalamocortical connections, and altered occurrence rates in different populations. The data-driven approach used here may serve as a novel method for analyzing and interpreting resting-state fMRI signals, complementary to conventional approaches.

12:21           0040.   Resting Brain Networks Revealed by Independent Component Analysis of Cerebral Blood Flow

                                Senhua Zhu1, 2, Zhuo Fang1, 2, Siyuan Hu3, Marc Korczykowski2, Ze Wang2, John A. Detre2, Hengyi Rao, 12

                                1Psychology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2Center for Functional Neuroimaging, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; 3State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China


The present study used independent component analysis to examine resting brain networks in a large cohort (n=149) of subjects with arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI data. Ten CBF networks were consistently identified across the whole and sub-datasets, including the default mode network, bilateral attention networks, primary and second visual networks, auditory network, ventral-medial prefrontal network, dorsal-medial prefrontal network, and two limbic networks. These networks well replicated the resting-state BOLD networks from a sub-group (n=81) and support the feasibility of using CBF connectivity to examine resting brain function.

12:33           0041.   Resting-State fMRI at 4 Hz

                                Ying-Hua Chu1, Jyrki Ahveninen2, Tommi Raij2, Wen-Jui Kuo3, John W. Belliveau2, Fa-Hsuan Lin1

                                1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2A. A. Martinos Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States; 3Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan


Resting-state fMRI studies reflecting functional connectivity have been typically limited to frequencies below 0.1 H. Here, we hypothesize that fMRI can detect interregional correlations in MRI time series at frequencies above 0.1 Hz as well. Using MR inverse imaging (InI) at a 10 Hz sampling rate, we studied interhemispheric correlations between primary sensorimotor and visual cortices. We found significant correlations at 4 Hz (average Z-score ~8) that were about 60% of those observed at 0.1 Hz.

Advanced MRI in Multiple Sclerosis

Room 355 BC      10:45-12:45                                                      Moderators:Maria A. Rocca & Alex Rovira

10:45           0042.   Functional and Structural Disruption of the Precuneus Contributes to Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

                                Maria A. Rocca1, Martina Absinta1, Maria Pia Amato2, Angelo Ghezzi3, Lucia Moiola4, Agnese Fiorino4, Pierangelo Veggiotti5, Giancarlo Comi4, Massimo Filippi1, and the MS and Neuroimaging Study Groups of the Italian Neurological Society6

                                1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy; 2Department of Neurology, University of Florence, Florence, FI, Italy; 3MS Centre, Ospedale di Gallarate, Gallarate, VA, Italy; 4Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy; 5Child Neurology Unit, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Pavia, PV, Italy; 6SIN, Siena, SI, Italy


We combined structural and functional MRI techniques to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the presence and severity of cognitive impairment in 35 patients with pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS). We found that in pediatric MS patients, cognitive dysfunction is associated to structural and functional abnormalities of core regions of the default mode network located in the posterior brain, particularly the precuneus. Increased resting state functional connectivity of regions located in the frontal lobe might compensate for such a dysfunction and contribute to cognitive preservation.

10:57           0043.   Impaired Regulation of the Blood Supply to the Brain in Multiple Sclerosis Measured with Hypercapnia BOLD MRI

                                Yulin Ge1, Hanzhang Lu2, Yongxia Zhou3, Feng Xu2, Ilya Kister4, Hina Jaggi3, Joseph Herbert5, Robert I. Grossman6

                                1Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, United States; 2Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States; 3Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, United States; 4Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, United States; 5Neurology, New York University, New York, United States; 6Radiology, New York University, New York, United States


Normal neuronal activity is tightly linked to and critically depends on the increase of blood flow for instantaneous supply of oxygen and glucose. This study is to evaluate whether there is cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using hypercapnia BOLD MRI. Our findings of significant decrease of CVR in MS patients suggest an impaired vascular regulation of blood flow supply or defect neurocoupling mechanism, which may affect effective oxygen delivery particularly to the previously healthy and normal neurons and lead to neurodegeneration over time.

11:09           0044.   Regional Hippocampal Involvement Differs Across Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Phenotypes: A Radial Mapping MR-Based Study

                                Elisabetta Pagani1, Maria A. Rocca1, Giulia Longoni1, Vittorio Martinelli2, Bruno Colombo2, Andrea Falini3, Giancarlo Comi2, Massimo Filippi1

                                1Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy; 2Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy; 3Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, MI, Italy


The use of a regional approach for the study of hippocampal atrophy in a large cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) allowed us to detect differences in the regional pattern of damage distribution across the main disease clinical phenotypes. We found a selective and progressive CA1 atrophy in patients with MS as well as a substantial involvement of the subiculum, the major efferent of hippocampal pathways, even in the early phases of the disease. Primary progressive MS MS patients, in whom inflammation is relatively modest, showed a relative sparing of hippocampal formation.

11:21           0045.   Macromolecular Proton Fraction as a New Clinical Biomarker of Demyelination in Multiple Sclerosis

                                Vasily L. Yarnykh1, James D. Bowen2, Alexey A. Samsonov3, Pavle Repovic2, Angeli Mayadev2, Bart P. Keogh2, Beena Gangadharan2, Hunter R. Underhill1, Kenneth R. Maravilla1, Lily K. Jung Henson2

                                1Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; 2Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA, United States; 3Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States


Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) is a key parameter determining magnetization transfer in tissues. Recent studies demonstrated close associations between MPF and myelin content in neural tissues. We present the first clinical evaluation of a recently published fast whole-brain MPF mapping method in multiple sclerosis (MS). MPF in both white and gray matter in MS demonstrated highly significant decrease compared to controls and strong correlations with disability. Notably, gray matter MPF showed the strongest correlations with clinical status, thus emphasizing a critical role of gray matter demyelination in MS. This study establishes MPF as a new quantitative imaging biomarker of demyelination.

11:33           0046.   Spatial Patterns of Cortical Thinning in Neuromyelitis Optica: A Comparative Study with Multiple Sclerosis

                                Yaou Liu1, Teng Xie2, Ni Shu2, Kuncheng Li1, Yong He2

                                1Department of Radiology, Xuanwu hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China


We analyzed the global and regional cortical thickness (CTh) in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and directly compared with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs). Different patterns of cortical thinning between MS and NMO were observed. MS showed a widespread cortical thinning in many brain regions predominantly in frontal and temporary lobes, while subtle cortical thinning in occipital lobe was observed compared with HCs. When directly compare MS and NMO, several brain regions in temporary lobe was found significantly thinner in MS. Furthermore a significant correlation was found between CTh in several brain regions and clinical variables.

This study.  


11:45           0047.   Hippocampal Magnetization Transfer Ratio and Not Hippocampal Atrophy Best Explains Memory Dysfunction in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

                                Mishkin Derakhshan1, Gabriel Leonard1, Daviad Araujo1, D. Louis Collins1, Douglas L. Arnold1, Sridar Narayanan1

                                1Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada


The hippocampi (HC) have been found to be demyelinated in postmortem studies of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and HC pathology has been shown to be responsible for memory impairment. Using magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) as a marker of demyelination, we examined HC demyelination and HC atrophy in 26 patients with MS and 15 controls matched for age, sex, and education level. We found that focal HC MTR values best explained memory performance, specifically working and visual immediate memory, better than volumetric measures.

11:57           0048.   Regional Cortical Thickness in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Multi-Center Study

                                Ponnada A. Narayana1, Koushik Govindarajan1, Priya Goel1, Sushmita Datta2, John A. Lincoln3, Stacy S. Cofield4, Gary R. Cutter4, Fred D. Lublin5, Jerry S. Wolinsky3

                                1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Hlth Sci Cntr Houston, Houston, TX, United States; 2Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States; 3Neurology, University of Texas Hlth Sci Cntr Houston, Houston, TX, United States; 43Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States; 5The Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, United States


Changes in regional and global cortical thickness and age- and gender dependence of these measures on a large MS cohort that is a part of a multi-center clinical trial were investigated. Changes in regional cortical thicknesses were larger in the left hemisphere compared to the right. Males showed stronger age dependent cortical thickness than females. Strongest reductions in the thickness were observed in the entorhinal cortex and temporal poles in MS, the structures implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases.  Weaker age dependent changes in both global and regional cortical thicknesses were observed in MS patients compared to controls.

12:09           0049.   Magnetisation Transfer Imaging of Subpial Cortical Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis

                                Rebecca S. Samson1, Manuel Jorge Cardoso2, 3, Nils Muhlert4, Varun Sethi4, Claudia Angela M. Wheeler-Kingshott4, Maria A. Ron4, Sebastian Ourselin2, 3, David H. Miller4, Declan T. Chard4

                                1NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, England, United Kingdom; 2Centre for Medical Image Computing, UCL Department of Computer Sciences, London, United Kingdom; 3Dementia Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom; 4NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom


Histopathology has demonstrated extensive cortical demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), often in a subpial location. We subdivided the cortex into inner and outer ‘bands’, and investigated the relationship between inner and outer cortical abnormality (as measured by the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR)) and clinical course in a large cohort of MS patients. Outer was lower than inner MTR in people with MS and controls, as expected due to the lower myelin content in the outer cortex. Outer cortical MTR reductions (consistent with subpial demyelination) were observed in relapse-onset MS and were most marked in people with secondary progressive MS.

12:21           0050.   Impact of Macrophagic Activity on Tissue Structure in Patients Suffering from Clinically Isolated Syndrome Suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis: A Multicentric USPIO Enhancement Study at 3T

                                Adil Maarouf1, 2, Jean Christophe Ferré3, 4, Wafaa Zaaraoui1, Elise Bannier5, Christian Barillot6, Isabelle Berry7, Gilles Edan8, Damien Galanaud9, Jean Pelletier, 110, Christophe Portefaix11, Ayman Tourbah12, Jean-Philippe Ranjava1, Bertrand Audoin, 110

                                1CRMBM, CNRS UMR 7339, Marseille, France; 2Dept. of Neurology, CHU REIMS, Reims, France; 3Dept. of Neuroradiology, CHU Rennes, RENNES cedex 9, France; 4Visages U746 , INSERM INRIA IRISA, Rennes, France; 5Neurinfo, INSERM INRIA IRISA, Rennes, France; 6Visages U746, INSERM INRIA IRISA, Rennes, France; 7Dept. of Biophysics, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France; 8Dept. of Neurology, CHU Rennes, Rennes, France; 9Dept of Neuroradiology, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France; 10Dept. of Neurology, CHU Marseille, Marseille, France; 11Dept. Radiology, CHU Reims, Reims, France; 12Dept. of Neurology, CHU Reims, Reims, France


Macrophage infiltration is an important pattern in inflammatory processes associated to multiple sclerosis. The aim of this longitudinal and multicentric study was to determine the prevalence of USPIO enhancement in patients with early MS and the impact of macrophage activity at early and medium term on tissue integrity assessed by MTR. From the earliest stage of MS, we highlighted the presence in vivo of activated macrophages. Destructuration was higher and persistent in lesions with significant macrophages burden. The total T2-w lesion was significantly higher in the group of patient that had at baseline at least one USPIO-positive lesion.

12:33           0051.   Correlations Between Corpus Callosal Myelin Water Fraction and Measures of Transcallosal Inhibition in Multiple Sclerosis Patients on Glatiramer Acetate Treatment

                                Eric Y. Zhao1, Irene Vavasour2, Marjan Zakeri3, Michael Borich3, Cornelia Laule4, Anthony L. Traboulsee5, David K.B. Li2, Lara Boyd3, Alex L. Mackay, 26

                                1Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Radiology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Brain Behavior Lab, Department of Physical Therapy, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Physics & Astronomy, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada


Myelin water fraction (MWF) measured via the signal fraction of the short T2 relaxation time can be used to monitor demyelination in MS over time. Transcallosal inhibition (TCI), measured via transcranial magnetic stimulation, is also indicative of neuronal health. This study aims to uncover correlations between callosal MWF and TCI parameters to better characterize MWF as a predictor of neurophysiologic function. We found that decreased MWF in the callosal region shown to carry motor information is correlated with delayed onset as well as decreased duration and magnitude of TCI. We attribute this to loss of spatiotemporal tion due to demyelination.

Diffusion Acquisition

Room 355 EF       10:45-12:45                                          Moderators:Roland Bammer & Alexander Leemans

10:45           0052.   The Human Connectome Project: Advances in Diffusion MRI Acquisition and Preprocessing

                                Stamatios N. Sotiropoulos1, Saad Jbabdi1, Junqian Xu2, Jesper L. Andersson1, Steen Moeller2, Edward J. Auerbach2, Matthew F. Glasser3, David Feinberg4, Christophe Lenglet2, David C. Van Essen3, Kamil Ugurbil2, Timothy E.J. Behrens1, Essa S. Yacoub2

                                1FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; 2Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; 3Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, United States; 4Advanced MRI Technologies, Sebastopol, CA, United States


The Human Connectome Project (HCP) is an ambitious 5-year effort to map human brain connections in healthy adults. A consortium of HCP investigators will study a population of 1200 subjects using multiple imaging modalities along with extensive behavioral and genetic data. In this overview, we focus on diffusion-weighted MRI and the structural connectivity aspect of the project. We present recent advances in acquisition and preprocessing that allow us to obtain the best possible MR data quality in-vivo, while confronting with the aim of scanning many subjects. The data quality described is representative of the datasets to be released within 2013.

10:57           0053.   Combining ZOOPPA and Blipped CAIPIRINHA for Highly Accelerated Diffusion Weighted Imaging at 7T and 3T

                                Cornelius Eichner1, 2, Kawin Setsompop2, 3, Peter J. Koopmans4, Alfred Anwander1, Ralf Lützkendorf5, Steven F. Cauley6, Himanshu Bhat7, David G. Norris4, Robert Turner1, Lawrence L. Wald2, 3, Robin Martin Heidemann1, 8

                                1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany; 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, United States; 3Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; 4Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, Netherlands; 5Otto v. Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; 6Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States; 7Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA, United States; 8Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany


The ZOOPPA technique provides highly resolved dMRI data at 7T, but whole-brain data sets take a long time to acquire. EPI volume acquisition time can be greatly reduced using blipped CAIPIRINHA. We have implemented combined ZOOPPA and CAIPIRINHA, enabling highly resolved and accelerated acquisition of dMRI data at 7T.

11:09           0054.   3D Multi-Slab Diffusion-Weighted Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging with Real-Time Cardiac-Reordered K-Space Acquisition

                                Robert Frost1, Karla L. Miller1, David A. Porter2, Rob H. N. Tijssen3, Peter Jezzard1

                                1FMRIB Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; 2Healthcare Sector, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany; 3Department of Radiotherapy, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands


We present a 3D multi-slab readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI) sequence for diffusion imaging that minimizes motion-induced phase artefacts with 2D navigator correction and real-time reordering of k-space with respect to the cardiac cycle. Options for acquisition schemes and motion-induced phase corrections were simulated and the chosen strategy was implemented by modifying a standard 2D rs-EPI sequence. Real-time cardiac reordering is validated in simulations and experiment, demonstrating 40-50% reduced variability in a time series of diffusion images compared to a sequential k-space acquisition. The 3D multi-slab rs-EPI method is demonstrated in-vivo and is shown to provide excellent image fidelity.

11:21           0055.   Accelerating Data Acquisition for Reversed-Gradient Distortion Correction in Diffusion MRI: A Constrained Reconstruction Approach

                                Chitresh Bhushan1, Anand A. Joshi2, Richard M. Leahy2, Justin P. Haldar2

                                1University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States; 2Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States


EPI-based diffusion MRI suffers from localized distortion artifacts in the presence of B0 inhomogeneity, which can cause problems in multi-modal image analysis and when estimating quantitative diffusion parameters. These distortions can be partially corrected with measured field maps, though performance improves substantially if each image is acquired twice with reversed phase encoding gradients (at the expense of doubling the scan time). In this work, we propose a novel acquisition and reconstruction strategy that leverages a constrained reconstruction formulation to enable accurate distortion correction with similar performance to the reversed gradient method, but without increasing the scan time.

11:33           0056.   High-Resolution Diffusion Weighted MRI Enabled by Multi-Shot EPI with Multiplexed Sensitivity-Encoding

                                Nan-kuei Chen1, Arnaud Guidon1, Hing-Chiu Chang1, Allen W. Song1

                                1Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States


DWI data have been mostly acquired with single-shot EPI with limited spatial resolution. Multi-shot EPI could potentially achieve higher spatial resolution and fidelity, but is susceptible to aliasing artifacts due to phase inconsistencies among excitations. Although the shot-to-shot phase variations may be corrected with navigator echoes, the residual artifacts may be pronounced when there exist local and nonlinear motions. To address these challenges, a novel multi-shot DWI technique is developed here to reliably and inherently correct nonlinear shot-to-shot phase variations without navigator echoes. This technique enables very high-resolution DWI mapping of human white matter architecture.

11:45           0057.   Tilted 2D RF Excitation with Extended Slice Coverage for High-Resolution Reduced-FOV DWI

                                Suchandrima Banerjee1, Emine U. Saritas2, Gerd Melkus3, Ajit Shankaranarayanan1

                                1Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States; 2Bioengineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States; 3Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Univerisity of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States


2D spatially selective RF excitation obviates the need for a large field-of-view in the phase-encoding direction to avoid aliasing artifacts and can zoom into a region of interest. This reduces distortion in single-shot echo-planar imaging (ssEPI) by reducing readout time, as recently demonstrated by publications on reduced field-of-view (rFOV) diffusion imaging. However the number of slices can be limited due to presence of side lobes with the 2D RF excitation. In this work we demonstrate a tilted 2D RF design which removes the restriction on number of maximum slice locations, while providing robust fat suppression in diffusion-weighted ssEPI.

11:57           0058.   Fast DSI Reconstruction with Trained Dictionaries

                                Berkin Bilgic1, Itthi Chatnuntawech1, Kawin Setsompop2, 3, Stephen F. Cauley4, Lawrence L. Wald2, 5, Elfar Adalsteinsson, 56

                                1EECS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States; 2A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Dept. of Radiology, MGH, Charlestown, MA, United States; 3Harvard Medical School, Boston , MA, United States; 4A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States; 5Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA; 6EECS, MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States


Significant benefit in Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction of Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI) data from undersampled q-space was demonstrated when a dictionary trained for sparse representation was utilized rather than wavelet and Total Variation (TV). However, computation times of both dictionary-based and Wavelet+TV methods are on the order of days for full-brain processing. We present two algorithms that are 3 orders of magnitude faster than these CS methods with reconstruction quality comparable to the previous dictionary-CS approach.

12:09           0059.   Optimal Acquisition Protocol for White Matter Fiber Orientation Mapping Using Generalized CSA-ODF Reconstruction

                                Amith J. Kamath1, Iman Aganj2, 3, Junqian Xu4, Essa S. Yacoub4, Kamil Ugurbil4, Guillermo Sapiro5, Christophe Lenglet4

                                1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; 2Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, United States; 3Electrical and Computer Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States; 4Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; 5Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States


This work elaborates guidelines for sampling schemes to be used with a multi-shell diffusion MRI acquisition. The reconstruction is based on the CSA-ODF model and we use the Camino toolkit to generate synthetic data for simulations. By varying the b-value, Spherical Harmonics order, SNR and number of gradient directions, we conclude with the observation that b-values including 1000, 2000, and a third shell in the range [3000, 6000] s/mm2 shows better reconstructions, and that 200 total gradient directions appear sufficient.

12:21           0060.   A Comparison Between Double-PFG MRI and DTI in ex Vivo Rat Brain

                                Tuukka Miettinen1, Alejandra Sierra1, Teemu Laitinen2, Juhana Sorvari1, Olli Gröhn3

                                1Department of Neurobiology, A. I. Virtanen Institute, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; 2Department of Neurobiology,  A. I. Virtanen Institute, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; 3Department of Neurobiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland


Parametric maps obtained with double-PFG MR imaging and DTI were compared in five brain regions with different degree of microscopic and microscopic anisotropy as verified by histology. Our data show clear difference between FA and apparent eccentricity (|aE|) map in white matter while the residual phase map from d-PFG data could differentiate between grey matter areas with different degrees of partially oriented anisotropic structures. We conclude that double-PFG can provide novel information about microstructure of tissue and it has high potential to detect structural modifications caused by pathological conditions.

12:33           0061.   Oscillating Gradient Spin-Echo (OGSE) Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Human Brain

                                Corey Allan Baron1, Christian Beaulieu1

                                1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


Apparent diffusion coefficients measured using DTI depend on the time allowed for the molecules to probe the local environment because of the presence of cellular structures. Oscillating gradient spin-echo (OGSE) DTI enables greatly reduced diffusion times, which grants a greater sensitivity to diffusion restriction/hindrance over smaller length scales. In this work, DTI with a b-value of 300 s/mm2 and maximum OGSE frequency of 50 Hz is demonstrated in 5 healthy subjects, where significant increases of parallel and perpendicular DTI eigenvalues as well as decreases in FA are observed as the diffusion time is decreased from 40 ms to 5 ms.

Educational Course

MR Physics & Techniques for Clinicians

Organizers:Marcus T. Alley, Ph.D. & Michael Markl, Ph.D.

Room 250 BCEF 10:45-12:45                                               Moderators:Marcus T. Alley & Michael Markl

10:45                       Spin Gymnastics 1

                                Walter Kucharczyk, M.D., F.R.C.P.C.


11:25                       Spin Gymnastics 2

                                Donald B. Plewes, Ph.D.


12:05                       K-Space

                                Kevin M. Koch, Ph.D.


12:45                       Adjournment


Educational Course

MRI of Musculoskeletal Impingement Syndromes

Organizers:Richard Kijowski, M.D. & William B. Morrison, M.D.

Room 255 BC      10:45-12:45                                             Moderators:Richard Kijowski & William B. Morrison

10:45                       Shoulder: Sources of Impingement

                                Michael P. Recht, M.D.


11:15                       Hip: Femoral-Acetabular & Ischiofemoral Impingement

                                Julia Crim, M.D.


11:45                       Ankle: Anterior, Anterolateral & Posterior Impingement

                                James M. Linklater, M.D., M.B.B.S.


12:15                       Nerve Impingement Around the Body

                                Luis S. Beltran, M.D.


12:45                       Adjournment


Educational Course

Integrated Comprehensive Approach to the Brain Tumor Patient: A Case Study

Organizer:Keith R. Thulborn, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 251 BCEF 10:45-12:45                                           Moderators:Patricia M. Desmond & Keith R. Thulborn

Diagnosis & Presurgical Planning

10:45                       Surgical Perspective: Neurosurgical Approach to Brain Tumors

                                Randy L. Jensen, M.D., Ph.D.


11:15                       Addressing Neurosurgeon’s Questions in Preparing for Resection with MRI

                                Andrei I. Holodny, M.D.


Post-Resection Tumor Patient Management & Treatment

11:45                       Post-Surgical Follow-Up of Brain Tumors: Treatment & Response Monitoring

                                Howard Colman, M.D., Ph.D.


12:15                       Addressing the Oncologist’s Concerns with MR Imaging: Now & Future

                                Whitney Pope, M.D., Ph.D.


12:45                       Adjournment


Gold Corporate Symposium: GE Healthcare

Plenary Hall          13:00-14:00    (no CME credit)                                                                                            



Traditional Poster Session: Young Investigator Award Presentations

Exhibition Hall     14:15-16:15    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Electronic Poster Session: Diffusion & Perfusion

Exhibition Hall     14:15-16:15    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Study Group Session:  MRI Engineering; MR Safety

Room 155 ABC   14:15-16:15    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Study Group Session:  Dynamic NMR Spectoscopy

Room 254 ABC   14:15-16:15    (no CME credit)                                                                                            



Flow Quantification

Room 150 AG      14:15-16:15                                          Moderators:Karin G. Markenroth Bloch & Ian Marshall

14:15           0062.   A Direct Calculation of Hemodynamic Energy Loss in the Presence of Abnormal Aortic Flow

                                Alex J. Barker1, Krishna C. Bandi2, Julio Garcia1, Pim van Ooij1, Patrick McCarthy2, James C. Carr1, S Chris Malaisrie2, Michael Markl1

                                1Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States; 2Cardiac Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States


In this study, the measurement of viscous energy loss, a parameter which is directly responsible for increased cardiac afterload and is independent of pressure recovery effects, was used to quantify LV loading in the presence of aortic valve disease (AVD). A theoretical basis for the technique is presented and applied in-vivo using 4D flow MRI in a range of healthy, dilated aorta, and aortic stenosis (AS) subjects (n=26). Abnormal flow features, combined with systolic flow jets and flow-jet/wall impingement, resulted in statistically elevated energy loss for dilated (0.08±0.02W, p=0.011) and AS patients (0.81±0.42W, p<0.001), compared to healthy volunteers (0.05±0.02W).

14:27           0063.   4D Flow MRI for Non-Invasive Assessment of Mesenteric Ischemia

                                Oliver Wieben1, 2, Alejandro Roldán-Alzate2, Scott B. Reeder, 12, Mark L. Schiebler2, Scott K. Nagle2, Charles W. Acher3, Ben Ray Landgraf2, Thomas M. Grist2, Christopher J. Francois2

                                1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; 3Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States


This pilot study investigates the use of 4D flow MRI to improve diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia by providing simultaneous anatomical depiction and functional assessment of the hemodynamics before and after a meal challenge. MR Flow data from a meal challenge are presented for eight patients suspected of mesenteric ischemia, demonstrating high potential to improve diagnostics and therapeutic decision making in this challenging diagnosis.

14:39           0064.   New Insights in the Disagreement of Transvalvular Mean Pressure Gradient Measured by Transthoracic Echo-Doppler and Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

                                Julio Garcia1, Romain Capoulade2, Lyes Kadem3, Eric Larose2, Philippe Pibarot2

                                1Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States; 2Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 3Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


Transvalvular mean pressure gradient (MPG) measured by CMR often underestimates echo-Doppler MPG. This underestimation might be due to physical factors as flow turbulence generated downstream the severe AS, local signal loss, background noise and phase wrap. However fluid dynamic parameters may play also a significant role in the MPG measurement by CMR. The aims of this study were to identify the fluid dynamic factors associated with MPG underestimation by CMR and to investigate the association of those factors in the AS severity assessment by CMR.

14:51           0065.   Evaluation and Validation of Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements from 2D and 4D PC MRI in Swine with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Initial Results

                                Andrew L. Wentland1, 2, Thomas M. Grist, 23, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam4, Christian G. Krueger4, Patrick E. McBride5, Jennifer J. Meudt4, Jess D. Reed4, Oliver Wieben1, 2

                                1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, WI, United States; 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, WI, United States; 3Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States; 4Animal Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States; 5Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, WI, United States


The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements derived from 2D and 4D phase contrast MRI in swine with hypercholesterolemia and to compare these measurements to those derived from gold standard pressure probes. Bland-Altman analysis revealed relatively small differences between the MR and pressure probe PWV values; there was less variability with the 4D PWV measurements than with the 2D techniques. Correlation to pressure probe measurements was stronger with the 4D technique than with the 2D techniques. The 4D acquisition provides a promising means of computing PWV in a swine model of atherosclerosis.

15:03           0066.   High Temporal-Resolution Three-Directional Velocity Measurements in a Single Breath-Hold Using EPI and Direct Inversion

                                Ning Jin1, Rizwan Ahmad2, Yu Ding2, Sven Zuehlsdorff3, Orlando P. Simonetti2, 4

                                1Siemens Healthcare, Columbus, OH, United States; 2Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; 3Siemens Healthcare, Chicago, IL, United States; 4Department of Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States


A novel echo-planar (EPI) implementation of balanced four-point velocity encoded PC-MRI for rapid, breath-hold acquisition of three-directional velocity data with high temporal resolution is presented. A direct inversion with regularized least square estimation of velocities from the acquired phase data is used to increase temporal resolution by a factor of four. The combined approach enables simultaneous measurements of vx, vy, and vz with an effective temporal resolution of 14.5 ms within a single breath-hold.

15:15           0067.   4D UTE Flow: A Novel 4D Ultra-Short TE Phase-Contrast MRI Technique for Assessment of Flow and Hemodynamics

                                Mo Kadbi1, Melanie S. Traughber2, Peter Martin2, Amir A. Amini1

                                1Elect. and Comp. Eng., University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States; 2Philips healthcare, Highland Heights, OH, United States


4-D flow MRI has been recently investigated in several studies for quantitative flow assessment and visualization of complex flow pattern.  Conventional 4-D PC MRI is not promising technique in the presence atherosclerotic disease and vascular stenosis due to intravoxel dephasing secondary to disturbed blood flow, and turbulence distal to narrowing often resulting in flow-related artifacts.  Ultra-short TE (UTE) PC MRI revealed a shorter TE and improvement in flow quantification in disturbed and turbulent blood flow in through-plane direction . To take advantage of 4-D flow MRI as well as short TE, UTE technique was combined with 4D flow imaging and a 4-D UTE PC MRI technique was investigated. The fusibility of this technique for comprehensive flow assessment in healthy carotid artery compared to conventional 4-D PC MRI was studied.

15:27           0068.   High-Resolution, High-SNR Velocity Maps Reconstructed from Low-Resolution Fourier Velocity Encoded MRI Data

                                Vinicius de Carvalho Rispoli1, 2, Joao L. A. Carvalho1

                                1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2UnB-Gama Faculty, University of Brasília, Gama, DF, Brazil


Fourier velocity encoding (FVE) provides considerably higher SNR than phase contrast, and is robust to partial-volume effects. FVE typically presents low spatial resolution, due to scan-time restrictions associated with its higher dimensionality. FVE is capable of providing the velocity distribution associated with a large voxel, but does not directly provides a velocity map. We propose a method for deriving high spatial resolution velocity maps from low-resolution FVE data. Experiments using numerical phantoms, as well as simulated spiral FVE data derived from real phase contrast data, show that it is possible to obtain reasonably accurate velocities maps from low-resolution FVE distributions.

15:39           0069.   Analysis of Thermal Stability of Background Phase Errors in Phase-Contrast Flow Imaging

                                Julia Busch1, Signe Johanna Vannesjo1, Christoph Barmet1, 2, Klaas P. Pruessmann1, Sebastian Kozerke1, 3

                                1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Skope Magnetic Resonance Technologies, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom


Background phase errors of various spatial and temporal orders limit the accuracy of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Current calibration techniques can compensate for them almost completely; however, they require the MR system to be temporally stable. In the present work we analyze the stability of background phase errors under thermal changes of the gradient system as it may occur for scans of long duration and high duty-cycle. Measurement of the gradient impulse response function shows a shift in frequency of the oscillatory field fluctuations with increasing temperature which results in a change of 0th and 1st order field offsets.

15:51           0070.   4 Dimensional, Single Step Laplacian Algorithm for Phase Unwrapping in 4D MR Flow

                                Michael Loecher1, Oliver Wieben1, 2, Kevin M. Johnson1

                                1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States; 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States


This study applies a single-step Laplacian based unwrapping algorithm to 4D-Flow MRI.  The Laplacian operation is extended to all 4 dimensions to solve for a continuous phase field in space and time.  Digital flow phantom experiments show the improved performance for varying SNR and VENC settings, and in vivo measurement with significant wrapping are shown to be successfully unwrapped.

RF Pulse Design

Room 151 AG      14:15-16:15                                         Moderators:William A. Grissom & John M. Pauly

14:15           0071.   Improved Excitation Fidelity in Cardiac Imaging with 2-Spoke Parallel Excitation at 7 Tesla

                                Sebastian Schmitter1, Lance DelaBarre1, Xiaoping Wu1, Andreas Greiser2, Dingxin Wang3, Kamil Ugurbil1, Pierre-Francois Van de Moortele1

                                1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; 2Siemens AG, Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany; 3Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States


Cardiac MRI may greatly benefit from ultra-high field (UHF) providing higher SNR and intrinsic contrast. However, shorter RF wavelength at UHF results in transmit B1 (B1+) and contrast variations through the heart. This problem has been addressed using multi-channel transmit coils and B1-shimming, but further improvements are expected by using parallel transmission (pTX) with multi-spoke RF-pulses as shown in brain and liver at 7T. However, this involves additional challenges, including rapid and robust multi-channel ECG-triggered B1+ calibration, and sensitivity to motion. Here, we investigate the impact of 2-spoke RF-pulse design on 7T cardiac imaging using a 16-channel pTX system.

14:27           0072.   Improvement in B1+ Homogeneity of 3T Cardiac MRI in Swine with Dual-Source Parallel RF Excitation

                                Daniel A. Herzka1, Haiyan Ding2, 3, Michael Schar4, 5

                                1Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States; 2Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 3Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; 4Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; 5Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States


MRI scanners use an integrated birdcage coil to generate radio frequency (RF) excitation fields (B1+). It has been reported that at 3T variations in flip angle can range from 31 to 66% (B1+ inhomogeneities) over the left ventricle and average flip angles can be reduced by ~20% (RF power). Multi-channel transmit systems allow RF-shimming to locally improve the B1+ field. We quantify improvements in B1+ field homogeneity and average RF power resulting from dual-source parallel RF excitation in cardiac swine imaging. Correlation with animal size demonstrates that larger subjects suffer more B1+ field inhomogeneity and benefit more from RF shimming.

14:39           0073.   kT PINS RF Pulses for Low-Power Field Inhomogeneity-Compensated Multislice Excitation

                                Anuj Sharma1, Samantha J. Holdsworth2, Rafael O'Halloran2, Eric Aboussouan2, Anh Tu Van2, Julian R. Maclaren2, Murat Aksoy2, Victor Andrew Stenger3, Roland Bammer2, William A. Grissom1

                                1Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States; 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States; 3Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States


A new class of patient-tailored multiband RF pulses "kT-PINS" is presented that combines PINS multiband excitation pulses with kT-points 3D patient-tailored excitation pulses, enabling simultaneous excitation of multiple slices and compensation of transmit field inhomogeneities. An interleaved greedy and local optimization algorithm was developed to design the pulses. Phantom experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulses in reducing flip angle inhomogeneity caused by transmit field inhomogeneity at 7T.

14:51           0074.   Simultaneous Multi-Slice Parallel RF Excitation with In-Plane B1+ Homogenization

                                Xiaoping Wu1, Sebastian Schmitter1, Edward J. Auerbach1, Steen Moeller1, Kamil Ugurbil1, Pierre-Francois Van de Moortele1

                                1CMRR, Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States


Simultaneous multi-band (MB) RF excitation, along with subsequent unaliasing via parallel imaging principles, provides an effective means to accelerate volume coverage along the slice direction. Recently, the approach has been exploited with significant success in functional and diffusion-weighted imaging studies of the brain. So far this technique has only been demonstrated in the context of single channel transmit. In this study, we extend this technique to multi-channel transmit and introduce parallel transmit (pTX) MB pulse design in order to tackle the issues of B1+ inhomogeneity at high and ultrahigh field strengths, and RF power deposition. The new extension is validated in the human brain at 7T and is demonstrated capable of providing good B1+ homogenization in addition to simultaneous MB excitation without necessitating the use of higher RF energy relative to a single channel application.

15:03           0075.   Simultaneous Multi-Slice Excitation by Parallel Transmission Using a Dual-Row PTX Head Array

                                Benedikt A. Poser1, Robert James Anderson1, Peter Serano2, Azma Mareyam2, Bastien Guérin2, Weiran Deng1, Lawrence L. Wald2, Victor Andrew Stenger1

                                1John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States; 2Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States


Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisitions have become popular for single-shot sequences such as BOLD and DW-EPI. SMS excitations are commonly achieved with multiband pulses. We explore parallel transmission (pTX) for SMS excitation, using differently frequency-shifted pulses on subsets of transmitters that define the excited slices. Using a dual-ring pTX coil and blippedCAIPIRINHA EPI, we show factor-2 SMS with conventional single-band pulses and factor-4 SMS using dual-band pulses on each ring. For pTX coils with inherent transmit-sensitivity encoding along the slice direction, the approach can reduce required RF power (global SAR) compared to MB pulses with as many frequency bands as slices applied on all coil elements.

15:15           0076.   Subject- And Resource-Specific Monitoring and Proactive Management of Parallel RF Transmission

                                Cem Murat Deniz1, 2, Leeor Alon, 23, Ryan Brown3, Daniel K. Sodickson, 23, Yudong Zhu, 23

                                1Department of Radiology, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University, New York, NY, United States; 2Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States; 3Department of Radiology, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States


Given the constraints imposed by the hardware resource in terms of RF power delivery and reflection handling capabilities, any practical RF pulse used on an MR scanner must be designed with those capabilities on mind. In parallel transmission, coupling and interaction taking place in the multi-port structure as well as in the subject can significantly affect individual channel RF power transmission and the demands placed upon the power amplifiers. By using pre-scan based multi-channel calibration, we designed parallel RF excitation pulses obeying the forward / reflected peak and average power limits of the RF power amplifier. Additionally, global SAR limits were incorporated in the RF pulse design. Results showed that the prediction capability of this new calibration method enables the design of parallel RF excitation pulses respecting strict and multifaceted power limits.

15:27           0077.   Improvement in T2-Weighted Imaging at 7T by Using KT-Points

                                Florent Eggenschwiler1, Kieran O'Brien2, Rolf Gruetter, 13, José P. Marques4

                                1EPFL, Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland; 2University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Universities of Geneva and Lausanne, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland; 4University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland


At high magnetic field strengths (B0 > 3T), the inhomogeneous distribution of the B1+ field causes undesirable signal and contrast variations of GM/WM across the brain. These artifacts impair the quality of T2-weigthed images at high field and may mislead any medical diagnosis that depends on these images.

In this study, short 3D tailored RF pulses (kT-points) were combined with a variable flip angle TSE sequence to obtain T2-weighted anatomical images with uniform contrast throughout the whole brain at 7T. A symmetric k-space trajectory ensured that the excitation profile associated with the kT-points remained close to the predicted STA approximation over the large range of flip angles used in the TSE sequence and gave optimal contrast homogeneity. The proposed methodology was tested at 7T, on both single-channel and PTx systems and demonstrates very promising achievements in T2-weighted brain imaging.


15:39           0078.   Fast Reconstruction for RF Monitored Sweep Imaging with Sideband Excitation

                                David Otto Brunner1, Benjamin E. Dietrich1, Matteo Pavan1, Klaas P. Pruessmann1

                                1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland


Pulsed NMR spectroscopy and imaging using stochastic1 or swept2 excitation during signal acquisition requires sets high requirements on the transmit chain in order to accurately deconvolve the received signal. Monitoring the RF pulse concurrently with the acquisition alleviates many of those requirements, however the computational effort is increased in particular if other confounding, such as propagation delay differences or temporally variable off-resonances need to be corrected. We present a fast FFT based reconstruction approach which is applied to SWIFT imaging using sideband excitation showing the benefits of the applied corrections.

15:51           0079.   B1-Insensitive Slice-Selective Pseudo-Adiabatic Pulse

                                Benoît Bourassa-Moreau1, Guillaume Gilbert1, 2, Gilles Beaudoin1

                                1Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Philips Healthcare, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


In this work, we present a slice-selective pseudo-adiabatic excitation (pBIR4-S1s2) which offers a B1-insensitive excitation at an arbitrary flip angle in a comparatively short duration (<10 ms). Slice-selection is achieved by replacing the hard RF sub-pulses of the pseudo-adiabatic pulse by slice-selective sub-pulses (SLR) of the same time-integrated areas and driven with an oscillating gradient. Simulated magnetization response and experimental results are shown.

16:03           0080.   A Simple Fat Suppression Method for Accelerated and Low-SAR 3D-EPI

                                Rüdiger Stirnberg1, Daniel Brenner1, Tony Stöcker1, Nadim Jon Shah1, 2

                                1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Jülich, Germany; 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, JARA, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany


A simple modification of a 3D-EPI sequence is proposed which renders additional time- and SAR-demanding fat suppression obsolete. Instead, using a rectangular excitation pulse yields robust fat suppression with minimal SAR if the pulse duration is selected carefully. This method, particularly useful for high field application, facilitates high-resolution functional imaging (fMRI) at temporal resolutions of two seconds or less. The basic concept and an expression for the optimal pulse duration (also valid for large flip angles) are introduced, validated in vivo at 3T and applied to finger tapping fMRI at 1.5mm isotropic resolution.

Animal Models 1

Room 155 EF       14:15-16:15                                                Moderators:Victor Sheng-Kwei Song & Louise van der Weerd

14:15           0081.   Multiparametric Microvascular MRI: A Cluster Approach to Characterize Glioma

                                Nicolas Coquery1, 2, Clément S. Debacker3, 4, Régine Farion, 25, Chantal Rémy1, 2, Olivier Francois6, 7, Emmanuel Luc Barbier, 28

                                1U836, INSERM, Grenoble, France; 2Université Joseph Fourier, grenoble, France; 3Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France; 4Bruker Biospin MRI, Ettlingen, Germany; 5Grenoble MRI Facility IRMaGe, Grenoble, France; 6TIMC-IMAG laboratory, UMR5525, CNRS, La Tronche, France; 7Université Joseph Fourier, La Tronche, France; 8INSERM U836, Grenoble, France


Multiple parameters of tumor microvasculature can be assessed with MRI. The accumulation of physiologically linked information might not be readily interpretable. To address this concern, we propose a cluster-based approach to highlight independent microvasular features within tumor. This strategy could distinguish two glioma models based on their cluster composition. This approach might be useful for solid tumor diagnosis as well as for the localization of pathological areas within the tumor that might become resistant to treatment.

14:27           0082.   Longitudinal Characterization of Apolipoprotein E Targeted Replacement Mice at 7 T

                                James A. Goodman1, Peter Cheng-Te Chou1, Zhiyong Xie1, Kelly R. Bales2

                                1Precision Medicine, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, United States; 2Neuroscience Research Unit, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, MA, United States


Theƒn&[epsilon]4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer¡¦s disease (AD) combined with an earlier age of disease onset. Little is known about how the &[epsilon]4 allele confers disease susceptibility, so mouse models expressing human ApoE alleles in the place of endogenous mouse ApoE protein by targeted replacement serve as ideal in vivo models to investigate how the &[epsilon]4 allele may influence normal brain function. We utilized structural, functional, and metabolic MRI techniques to characterize mice that are homozygous for human Apo&[epsilon]2, &[epsilon]3, and &[epsilon]4, at 14 and 20 months of age.

14:39           0083.   Microscopic 3D-DTI of Tumor Cell Migration, Numerical Modeling and Two- Photon Microscopic Imaging

                                Ulysse Gimenez1, Florence Appaix1, Teodora-Adriana Perles-Barbacaru1, Franck Mauconduit1, Marie-France Nissou1, Emilie Langard1, Laurent Pelletier1, Francois Berger1, Didier Wion1, Boudewijn van der Sanden1, Hana Lahrech1

                                1Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, La Tronche, France


A microscopic 3D-DTI is applied on a mouse glioma model using GFP transfected Glio6 cells to detect tumor cell migration. Two-photon microscopy is used for validation. Monte-Carlo simulations of water diffusion in numerical models of cerebral tissue geometry with micro-architecture changes are developed. FA decrease is observed in the corpus callosum where tumor cell invasion is particularly detected by microscopy. Typical elongated tumor cells indicate migration along the fibers. FA changes simulations versus extra / intracellular and white-matter / grey-matter show similar tendency as detected experimentally. The Glio6 model and 3D-DTI constitute a powerful tool to study tumor cell migration.

14:51           0084.   Preclinical MRI Reveals Bevacizumab Mitigates Radiation Necrosis

                                X. Jiang1, John A. Engelbach2, Jeremy Cates3, Dinesh K. Thotala4, RE Drzymala4, D.E. Hallahan4, JJH J.H. Ackerman5, Joel R. Garbow6

                                1Chemistry, Washington Univ. in st. louis, st louis, MO, United States; 2Radiology, Washington Univ. in st. louis, st louis, MO, United States; 3Radiation Oncology, Washington University in Saint Louis, st louis, MO, United States; 4Radiation Oncology, Washington Univ. in st. louis, st louis, MO, United States; 5Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, st louis, MO, United States; 6Radiology, Washington University in Saint Louis, st louis, MO, United States


Bevacizumab, is a powerful anti-angiogenic used in the treatment of tumors. Radiation necrosis, a severe but late occurring injury to normal tissue within and surrounding a radiation treatment field, has been suggested resulting from increases in vascular permeability (“leakiness”). Bevacizumab may help to repair “leaky” capillaries and thereby mitigate radiation necrosis. We have recently developed a novel mouse model of radiation necrosis using Gamma Knife irradiation. Here, we use small-animal MRI to monitor the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab and of mouse bevacizumab (B20-4.1.1), which is capable of high-affinity binding to both human and murine VEGF-A.

15:03           0085.   Effects of Maternal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Guinea Pig Neurodevelopment

                                Roger J. Mullins1, 2, Su Xu1, Joseph D. Pescrille3, Jacek Mamczarz3, Edna Pereira3, Edson X. Albuquerque3, Rao P. Gullapalli1

                                1Diagnostic Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Core for Translational Research in Imaging @ University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States; 2Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States; 3Division of Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States


The offspring of guinea pigs exposed during pregnancy to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos were examined using MR imaging and behavioral methods. Guinea pigs were given either a dose of chlorpyrifos or peanut oil during pregnancy. Morris water maze,  T2-weighted anatomicals,  and diffusion-weighted imaging  was administered to the offspring at PND 70. The chlorpyrifos group showed significant decreases in performance on the Morris Water Maze test as well as a decrease in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in several areas. These results underscore the extent of genetic changes that are possible with low levels of commonly used organophosphorus compounds during pregnancy that lead to neurodevelopmental changes.

15:15           0086.   Multivoxel Proton MR Spectroscopy Reveals Subcortical Glial Response to SIV-Infection in Rhesus Macaques

                                William E. Wu1, Ke Zhang1, Assaf Tal1, Eva-Maria Ratai2, Ramon Gilberto Gonzalez2, Oded Gonen3

                                1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States; 2Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, United States; 3Radiology, New York University, New York, NY, United States


It is not known in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders whether subcortical injury is characterized by damage to neurons, glia, or both. These may be monitored via proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) observed markers: N-acetylaspartate (NAA) for neurons, myo-inositol (mI) for glia, creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho). We test in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques, an excellent model system, whether infection produces: (a) decreases in NAA; and/or (b) increases in mI, Cho, and Cr by performing multivoxel 1H-MRS (0.125 cm3 spatial resolution) in five macaques before and after infection. We found glial activation in subcortical regions, but overall neuronal health was not compromised.

15:27           0087.   Activity-Modulated Interhemispheric Manganese Transfer Upon Intracortical Injection

                                Shu-Juan J. Fan1, 2, Wenwen A. Han1, 2, Frank Y. Lee1, 2, Kevin C. Chan1, 2, Samantha J. Ma1, 2, Ed X. Wu1, 2

                                1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China


Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is capable of detecting layer specific interhemispheric somatosensory connections. In this study, Mn2+ was injected into the right visual cortex for tracing interhemispheric visual connections in normal and monocularly enucleated rats. In consistent with classic histological tracing studies, Mn2+ enhancement in the left hemisphere was concentrated within a narrow bi-laminar stripe. Upon left eye enucleation, which making the right cortex largely deprived of visual stimulation, the Mn2+ transfer dropped by 18.5%. These results for the first time demonstrated that MEMRI is capable of tracing layer-specific transcallosal connectivity of visual cortex and is sensitive to activity modulation.

15:39           0088.   Decreased Functional Connectivity After Acute Cocaine Administration: A Feasibility Study of Resting-State fMRI in Awake Non-Human Primates

                                Kaundinya Gopinath1, Kevin Murnane2, Leonard Howell2

                                1Department of Radiology & Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States; 2Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States


Non-human primates afford distinct advantages in translational neuroimaging studies of drug addiction. To date, fcMRI studies in non-human primates have been exclusively conducted in subjects under anesthesia. In this study, resting state functional connectivity in these networks were assessed in three awake nonhuman primates, before and after acute cocaine administration. Primates exhibited a marked decrease in functional connectivity between frontal and striatal regions after acute cocaine administration, indicating impairment of neurocircuitry underlying drug addiction. Results demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring resting state functional connectivity data from awake monkeys, and provide a translational model for studying the changes induced by cocaine.

15:51           0089.   Gd-Staining Reveals the Efficacy of an Anti-A&[beta] Antibody to Decrease Amyloid Plaque Load in Vivo in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

                                Mathieu David Santin1, 2, Thomas Debeir3, Thierry Delzescaux2, 4, Anne-Sophie Herard2, 4, Caroline Cohen3, Laurent Pradier3, Thomas Rooney3, Marc Dhenain2, 4

                                1Centre de Neuroimagerie de Recherche – CENIR, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière – ICM, Paris, France; 2URA 2210 CEA/CNRS, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 3Therapeutic Strategy Unit Aging, Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France; 4MIRCen, CEA / I2BM, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France


This work describes the use of Gd-Staining MRI to quantify the efficacy of an immunotherapy in a mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis. We showed that this technique is suitable for longitudinal studies and provided age-associated increase of amyloid plaques in transgenic mice.

16:03           0090.   The Dose Response of the Developing Mouse Brain After Cranial Irradiation Varies by Brain Structure

                                Lisa M. Gazdzinski1, Richard J. Alsop1, Brian J. Nieman1

                                1Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada


Cranial irradiation for the treatment of paediatric cancer leads to the development of progressive neurocognitive deficits. Younger age at the time of irradiation, female sex, and the dose delivered are considered risk factors for the development of these deficits. Using longitudinal in vivo MRI, this study shows that the dose response following cranial irradiation at a young age varies with structure in the developing mouse brain. Knowledge of the dose sensitivity of different brain structures in children may help in treatment planning for paediatric cancer patients and in identifying the mechanisms leading to cognitive deficits.

Prostate: Clinical

Room 355 BC      14:15-16:15                                            Moderators:Jurgen J. Fütterer  & Daniel J. A. Margolis

14:15           0091.   MRI-US Fused Targeted Prostate Biopsy Detects Clinically Significant Cancer in Active Surveillance Patients Better Than 12 Core Random Biopsy with Less Than 4 Cores

                                Michael Da Rosa1, 2, Laurent Milot1, 3, Linda Sugar, 34, Danny Vesprini, 35, Hans Chung, 35, Andrew Loblaw, 35, Laurence Klotz, 36, Masoom A. Haider1, 3

                                1Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6Division of Urology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada


The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the ability of an MRI-US fusion biopsy system to detect clinically significant (CS) disease in active surveillance (AS) patients compared to random transrectal ultrasound (R-TRUS) guided biopsy (bx). Multiparametric MRI prospectively identified up to 4 suspicious targets in each patient. Biopsy was performed using an MRI-ultrasound navigation system (UroNav, Philips Healthcare). MRI-US fusion biopsy detected more CS cancers with fewer biopsy cores than random biopsy in AS patients. In addition, MRI in AS patients has a high negative predictive value for the presence of CS disease on subsequent biopsy.

14:27           0092.   Validation Study of ESUR Prostate MR Guidelines 2012: The Significance of Different Sequences of Multi-Parameter MRI in Detection of Prostate Cancer in 106 Consecutive Patients

                                Juan Hu1, He Wang1, Xuedong Yang1, Chengyan Wang2, Rui Wang1, Ge Gao1, Hui Zhang2, Wenchao Cai1, Wei Wang1, Jue Zhang2, 3, Xiaoying Wang1, 2

                                1Radiology Department, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; 2Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China; 3College of Engineering , Peking University, Beijing, China


Multi-parameter MRI (Mp-MRI) plays an increasingly important role in the detection, localization and staging of prostate cancer (PCa). To solve the absence of unified criterion of technique and the interpretation of images of Mp-MRI in PCa detection. A recent consensus meeting of PCa experts from ESUR recommended PI-RADS scoring system. True evidence-based guidelines could not be formulated. Our retrospective study proved that PI-RADS scoring was an operable and useful scoring system for interpretation of Mp-MRI used in PCa detection. The diagnostic status of each MR sequence was not at the same level. Only appropriate combined mode was used, the excellent diagnostic efficacy of Mp-MRI can be obtained.

14:39           0093.   Derivation and Comparison of Site Specific Peripheral and Transition Zone Quantitative DCE MRI Logistic Regression Models for Prostate Cancer Detection: Does Cancer Location Matter?

                                Nikolaos Dikaios1, Mohamed Abd Alazeez2, Mark Emberton2, Taiki Fujiwara3, David Atkinson4, Shonit Punwani4

                                1Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London , London, Greater London, United Kingdom; 2Department of Urology, University College London Hospital, London, Greater London, United Kingdom; 3Department of Radiology, University College London Hospital, London, Greater London, United Kingdom; 4Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London, Greater London, United Kingdom


Dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI has been advocated for detection of prostate cancer, but studies predominantly concentrate on peripheral zone tumours. Biological differences are known to exist between tumours within transition and peripheral zones due to their different microenvironment. This study aims to compare and contrast quantitative DCE MRI parameters of prostate PZ and TZ cancer and non-cancer regions; to identify those best able to classify cancer tissue at each site and thereby improve DCE MRI based diagnostic models used within computer aided detection software.

14:51           0094.   Computed Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Prostate at 3T: Impact on Image Quality and Tumor Detection

                                Andrew B. Rosenkrantz1, Nicole Hindman1, Hersh Chandarana1, Fang-ming Deng2, James S. Babb1, Samir S. Taneja3, Christian Geppert4

                                1Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, United States; 2Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, United States; 3Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, United States; 4Siemens Medical Systems, New York, United States


49 prostate cancer patients underwent 3T MRI including DWI with b-values 50 and 1000 mm2/sec.   Computed DW-images with b-value 1500 were generated from the lower b-value images without additional scan time.  Directly acquired b1500 images were also obtained in 39 patients.  For two independent readers, using prostatectomy as reference, computed b-1,500 images had higher sensitivity and PPV for tumor  than direct b-1,000 images and no significant difference than direct b-1,500 images.  Scores for diagnostic confidence, tumor conspicuity, distortion, and benign prostate tissue suppression, were also significantly better for computed b-1,500 images than for direct b-1,000 images for both readers.

15:03           0095.   Contrast Dispersion Mapping in DCE MRI: A New Option for Prostate Cancer Detection

                                Massimo Mischi1, Kyveli Kompatsiari1, Tamerlan Saidov1, Marc Engelbrecht2, Hessel Wijkstra, 12, Marcel Breeuwer, 13

                                1Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 2Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 3Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands


A new method is proposed for characterization of the microvascular architecture by assessment of contrast intravascular dispersion in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Dispersion is estimated by fitting a new model that integrates the Tofts model for permeability estimation together with a solution of the convective dispersion equation. Based on the link between angiogenesis and cancer growth, this method is evaluated for localization of prostate cancer by comparison with histology results following radical prostatectomy. Without need for an arterial input function, MR dispersion imaging enables the simultaneous generation of dispersion and permeability maps. Promising preliminary results in 7 patients are reported.

15:15           0096.   Hybrid T2 and Diffusion Weighted MRI for Prostate Cancer Detection

                                Shiyang Wang1, Yahui Peng1, Milica Medved1, Ambereen Yousuf1, Marko Ivancevic2, Ibrahim Karademir1, Yulei Jiang1, Tatjana Antic3, Steffen Sammet1, Aytek Oto1, Gregory S. Karczmar1

                                1Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States; 2MR clinical science, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH , United States; 3Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States


A novel, hybrid MR imaging method was implemented for prostate cancer detection. The proposed hybrid imaging acquires diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) data at three echo times (TE’s), and allows calculation of ADC and T2 as functions of TE and diffusion weighting factor (b-value), respectively. Preliminary results showed that both ADC and T2 calculated from the hybrid imaging data can help differentiate normal tissue regions and cancer foci. ADC at higher TE showed better differentiation than ADC at lower TE. The two dimensional 1/T2 map improved separation of cancer and normal voxels relative to a 1D comparison.

15:27           0097.   1H MRSI of Prostate Cancer Incorporating Spermine in the Quantification, a 7 Tesla Patient Study

                                                Mariska P. Luttje1, Robin A. de Graaf2, Catalina S. Arteaga de Castro1, Peter R. Luijten1, Marco van Vulpen1, Uulke A. van der Heide3, Dennis W.J. Klomp1

                                1Imaging Division, Univerity Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands; 2MRRC, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; 3Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands


In this study at 7T, we show the influence of polyamines in the variability of the cho+pa+cr/cit vs cho+cr/cit ratio by using spectral fitting with simulated basissets at 7T instead of the commonly used signal integration when including more than 200 MR spectra obtained from six patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Ratios excluding the fitted polyamines resonances show a clear trend towards less spread over the voxels (tumor as well as healthy).

15:39           0098.   Stratification of Disease Aggressiveness of Prostate Cancer Using MRSI and DWI

                                Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi1, Girdhar Bora2, Rajeev Kumar2, Sanjay Thulkar3, Sanjay Sharma3, Siddhartha D. Gupta4, Naranamangalam R. Jagannathan1

                                1Department of NMR & MRI Facility, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 2Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 3Department of Radio-diagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 4Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India


The challenge to clinicians in the management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients is the in vivo assessment of disease aggressiveness. TRUS biopsy detects the PCa and determines the Gleason score. Identification of patients with more-aggressive disease would help to prevent overtreatment of those with low-risk tumors. Our results showed the reduction of metabolite ratios [Cit/(Cho+Cr)] and ADC values with the increase of Gleason score. The present study indicates that MRSI and DWI could stratify the PCa disease aggressiveness non-invasively.

15:51           0099.   MR Spectroscopic Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Metabolism or Morphology?

                                Thiele Kobus1, Jeroen Van der Laak2, Caroline Bruggink1, Christina Hulsbergen-Van de Kaa2, Tom W.J. Scheenen1, Arend Heerschap1

                                1Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands; 2Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands


Variations in the signal intensity of citrate and other metabolites in 1H MRSI of the prostate may be caused by changes in luminal volume. This was investigated for cancer containing prostates by correlating signal intensities with morphological features of digitally segmented histopathological slices. A significant relation was found between the Cho+Spm+Cr/Cit ratio and the %area-of-nuclei / %-area-of-lumen, obtained from HE stained slices of prostatectomy samples. This study indicates that changes in the signal of Cit (and possibly of other metabolites) in PCa result from morphological alterations, rather than changes in metabolism.


16:03           0100.   Planning a Boosted Radiotherapy Dose to the Dominant Intraprostatic Tumour Lesion Within the Prostate as Defined by Multifunctional MR Parameters

                                Sophie F. Riches1, Geoffrey S. Payne1, Nandita M. deSouza1, Scott Morgan2, David Dearnaley3, Veronica A. Morgan1, Sharon L. Giles1, Mike Partridge4

                                1CR-UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom; 2Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Division of Radiotherapy & Imaging, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom; 4Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology,Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom


The use of a boosted radiation dose to a tumour nodule within the prostate is limited by poor accuracy for tumour localisation on morphological imaging; functional imaging offers more accurate delineation of the dominant intraprostatic lesion. This study uses a model that combines multifunctional MR parameters to define an intraprostatic lesion and plans an 84 Gy radiation boost to functional imaging-defined tumour with IMRT. Compared to a standard clinical treatment of 72 Gy applied uniformly across the prostate, a focal boost resulted in a greater therapeutic ratio, with potentially greater tumour control and fewer side-effects from the treatment.

Arterial Spin Labeling

Room 355 EF       14:15-16:15                                                  Moderators:Luis Hernandez-Garcia & Esben T. Petersen

14:15           0101.   Fast Cerebral Flow Territory Mapping Using Vessel Selective Dynamic Arterial Spin Labeling

                                Xingxing Zhang1, Eidrees Ghariq1, Sophie Schmid1, Wouter M. Teeuwisse1, Andrew G. Webb1, Matthias J.P. van Osch1

                                1C.J.Gorter center for high field MRI, Radiology, Leiden university medical center, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands


Vessel selective dynamic ASL (VS-DASL) was proposed to do a fast cerebral flow territory mapping. The results were in good agreement with traditional vessel selective ASL. The percentage of correctly classified voxels in the flow territory map proved that VS-DASL has potential to map the flow territories in a short scan time (~30-60s), enabling the use in patients with acute stroke.

14:27           0102.   The Use of k-Means Clustering and Bayesian Inference Framework for the Processing of Vessel-Encoded P-CASL Images as Compared with Super-Selective P-CASL MRI

                                Nolan S. Hartkamp1, Michael Helle2, Michael A. Chappell3, 4, Thomas W. Okell4, Reinoud P H Bokkers1, Jeroen Hendrikse1, Matthias J.P. van Osch5

                                1Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands; 2Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg, Germany; 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; 4FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; 5C.J. Gorter Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands


We show that the territorial perfusion maps produced by VE p-CASL agree reasonably well with the perfusion maps acquired with super-selective p-CASL. Special consideration should be taken when using k-means clustering since it tends to fail in regions with high mixed perfusion, such as the deep gray matter. VE p-CASL with k-means clustering appears suitable as a general purpose T-ASL strategy, but the Bayesian framework is preferable since it can determine mixed perfusion. This is however only reliable where the VE p-CASL images contain sufficient vessel selectivity. To accurately determine the perfusion territories of a vessel, super-selective p-CASL is still recommended.

14:39           0103.   VENTI: Venous Territory Imaging Using Remote Sensing

                                Eric Wong1, Jia Guo2

                                1Radiology/Psychiatry, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States; 2Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States


In recent years, several methods have been introduced for mapping of arterial perfusion territories using arterial spin labeling.  In this work, we adapt these remote sensing principles for mapping of vascular territories on the venous side, using spatial encoding of tissue water, and phase contrast based acquisition of signal from draining veins.  Possible applications include venous thrombosis, multiple sclerosis, and mapping of oxygenation extraction.

14:51           0104.   High Temporal Resolution Sampling of Tracer Kinetic Curves Using Time Encoded PCASL with Look-Locker Readout.

                                Wouter M. Teeuwisse1, Sophie Schmid1, Andrew G. Webb1, Matthias J.P. van Osch1

                                1Radiology, C.J.Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, ZH, Netherlands


Time encoded pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling (te-pCASL, a.k.a. Hadamard encoded pCASL) combined with a Look-Locker (LL) read out was applied to sample the tracer kinetics curve with high temporal resolution (50 ms). To improve LL performance a flip angle sweep and a temporal shift of LL images in subsequent acquisitions were implemented. Perfusion signal curves in arteries and tissue were fitted and variants of perfusion modeling were evaluated. Measurement of tissue perfusion in the visual cortex demonstrated decreased arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) and arterial transit time (ATT) upon visual stimulation while cerebral blood flow (CBF) increased.

15:03           0105.   Time Efficient Determination of Spin Compartments by Time Encoded Arterial Spin Labeling

                                Sophie Schmid1, Wouter M. Teeuwisse1, Eidrees Ghariq1, Andrew Webb1, Hanzhang Lu2, Matthias J.P. van Osch1

                                1C.J.Gorter Center for High Field Magnetic Resonance, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands; 2UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States


The aim of this study is to employ a method to measure the transverse relaxation time as a function of the inflow time and to distinguish spin compartments based on their T2 in a highly time-efficient and voxelwise manner. By the use of Time encoded (also known as Hadamar encoded) pseudo Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (te-pCASL) in combination with T2-Relaxation-Under-Spin-Tagging (TRUST) it is feasible to be more specific due to the short bolus duration and reduce the measurement time, while still keeping an equal SNR compared to separate multi-timepoint pCASL scans.

15:15           0106.   Assessing Intracranial Vascular Compliance Using Dynamic Arterial Spin Labeling

                                Lirong Yan1, Robert Smith1, Collin Liu2, Emily Kilroy1, Yufen Chen3, Danny J.J. Wang1

                                1Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States; 2Neurology, USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States; 3Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States


Vascular compliance (VC) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and stroke. In this study, we propose a novel MRI technique for assessing intracranial VC by synchronizing dynamic arterial spin labeling (ASL) scans with systolic and diastolic cardiac phases respectively. VC is estimated as the ratio between changes in arterial blood volume (BV) and changes in blood pressure (BP) between systolic and diastolic phases (i.e., VC=¦¤BV/¦¤BP). Our results showed that intracranial VC mainly occurs in big arteries, gradually decreases in small arteries and arterioles, and finally disappears in capillaries and tissue. Initial data also showeda decreased VC with aging.

15:27           0107.   Simultaneous Acquisition of Cerebral Blood Volume, Blood Flow and Blood Oxygenation Weighted MRI Signals at 7T

                                Steffen N. Krieger1, 2, Laurentius Huber1, Gary F. Egan2, Robert Turner1

                                1Neurophysics, Max-Plank Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Saxonia, Germany; 2Monash Biomedical Imaging, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia


Beside the classical blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast methods, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) based functional MRI (fMRI) measurements have recently become frequently used tools in neuroscience. However, the quantitative relationships between each of these parameters is not yet fully understood. We present an fMRI technique that simultaneously measures CBV, CBF and BOLD signals. This method benefits from the high static magnetic field strength of 7T as well as the implementation of slab-selective VASO and a multiple EPI-readout in order to correct for BOLD contamination effects in the CBV- and CBF weighted MRI signals.


15:39           0108.   Multi-Bolus Pulsed ASL for Improved Renal Perfusion Quantification

                                Xiang He1, Serter Gumus1, Ayaz Aghayev1, Kyongtae Ty Bae1

                                1Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States


High pulsatile blood flow/velocity in the descending aorta renders the labeling bolus of a standard pulse ASL (PASL) experiment to be limited within a single cardiac RR interval. In this study, we took advantage of such temporally uneven blood flow to generate multiple labeling boluses across consecutive RR intervals. We demonstrated that the proposed multi-bolus PASL scheme improved the sensitivity of renal PASL perfusion signal by ~30 to 50%.

15:51           0109.   Simultaneous Arterial Spin Labelling MRI and H2O15 Position Emission Tomography

                                Ke Zhang1, Hans Herzog1, Christian Filss1, Thomas Fischer2, Walter Sturm3, Burkhard Brocke2, Nadim Jon Shah1, 4

                                1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, Medical Imaging Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany; 2Neurobiology of Personality and Neurogenetics, Department of Psychology, Dresden Universi Laboratory, Dresden, Germany; 3Clinical Neurology , University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany; 4Department of Neurology, JARA, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen , Germany


A number of studies have compared ASL-MRI and 15O-water PET for the evaluation of ASL reliability and reproducibility. But none of these studies had the possibility to perform both techniques simultaneously to minimize the physiological variations. In this work, a simultaneous ASL-MRI and 15O-water PET approach has been implemented on a hybrid MR-PET for a truly quantitative comparison between the two methods in absolutely the same physiological and functional status.

16:03           0110.   Investigating White Matter Perfusion Using Optimal Sampling Strategy Arterial Spin Labeling (OSS-ASL) at 7T

                                Alexander Graeme Gardener1, Peter Jezzard1

                                1FMRIB Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford, United Kingdom


The measurement of White Matter perfusion (WM-CBF) using Arterial Spin Labeling techniques has proven difficult due to the low Contrast-to-Noise ratio and long labeled blood transit times found in this tissue. An Optimal Sampling Strategy approach was used to weight TI acquisition times to later blood arrival. This was combined with an ultra-high field 7T scanner to improve CNR and benefit from longer T1 relaxation time in labeled blood. It is shown that reasonable WM-CBF quantification can be achieved consistently in healthy human subjects. Fitted CBF and bolus arrival times were comparable to literature values.

Educational Course

Imaging Metabolism with Hyperpolarized Nuclei

Organizers:Kevin M. Brindle, Ph.D. & Rolf Gruetter, Ph.D.

Room 250 BCEF 14:15-16:15                                                                 Moderator:Arnaud Comment  

14:15                       Methods for Hyperpolarizing Nuclei (Optical, Brute Force, PHIP, DNP)

                                Jan H. Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Ph.D.


14:45                       Methods for Fast Imaging of Hyperpolarized Nuclei

                                Charles H. Cunningham, Ph.D.


15:15                       Preclinical Metabolic Imaging (Cancer, Cardiac, Kinetic Analysis)

                                Daniel M. Spielman, Ph.D.


15:45                       Clinical Imaging with Hyperpolarized C-13: The First Steps

                                Sarah J. Nelson, Ph.D.


16:15                       Adjournment


Educational Course

ISMRM/SMRT Forum: Safe & Ethical Imaging of Patients & Research Subjects

Organizer:Glenn D. Cahoon, M.App.Sc.

Room 255 BC      14:15-16:15                                                                  Moderator:Glenn D. Cahoon

14:15                       What’s New in MR Safety?- Active Implants, Device Labeling & Identification

                                William Faulkner, B.S., R.T.(R)(MR)(CT) & Frank G. Shellock, Ph.D., F.A.C.C.


14:45                       Occupational Exposure Limits, Magnetic Field Spatial Gradients & Their Impact on MR Safety Practices

                                Gregory C. Brown, R.T., FSMRT & Donald W. McRobbie, Ph.D.


15:15                       To Scan or Not to Scan? MR Safety Decision Making & the FPO Mode

                                Emanuel Kanal, M.D., F.A.C.R. & Anne Marie Sawyer, B.S., R.T.(R)(MR), FSMRT


15:45                       Legacy Implants, MR Conditional Labeling, Conflicting Information - MR Safety Now & the Future: Is There a Better Paradigm?

                                All Faculty


16:15                       Adjournment


Special Session

Mock Grant Review

Organizers:Joseph J. H. Ackerman, Ph.D. & Lee Rosen, Ph.D.

Room 255 EF       14:15-16:15                                         (no CME credit)           Moderator:Joseph J. H. Ackerman

14:15                       Introduction - Study Section Review Process, Scoring, Confidentiality
(Distribution of Grant Application Abstracts & Specific Aims Pages)

                                Joseph J. H. Ackerman, Ph.D.


14:30                       Scientific Review Officer (SRO) Begins Mock Study Section
Introduction of Study Section Members; Empowerment of Study Section Chair


14:35                       Study Section Chair Initiates the Review Process


15:35                       End of Mock Study Section Review Process
Audience Participation, Re: Questions, Opinions & Comments


15:55                       Programmatic Considerations & Sources for Additional Information re: the Grant Review Process


16:15                       Adjournment


Educational Course

New Advances in Neurodegenerative Disease

Organizers:Pratik Mukherjee, M.D., Ph.D. & Maria A. Rocca, M.D.

Room 251 BCEF 14:15-16:15                                           Moderators:Pratik Mukherjee & Maria A. Rocca

14:15                       Genetics & Molecular Biology of Alzheimer's Disease

                                John Keoni S. K. Kauwe, Ph.D.


14:45                       Quantitative Neuroimaging in the Clinical Setting: Toward an Earlier & More Accurate Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Disease

                                James B. Brewer, Ph.D.


15:15                       Predicting Neurodegenerative Disease with Connectomics

                                Ashish Raj, Ph.D.


15:45                       MR Imaging of Rapidly Progressive Dementias

                                Christopher P. Hess, M.D., Ph.D.


16:15                 Adjournment


Traditional Poster Session: Diffusion & Perfusion

Exhibition Hall     16:30-18:30    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Electronic Poster Session: Functional MRI (Neuro)

Exhibition Hall     16:30-18:30    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Study Group Session:  High Field Systems & Applications

Room 155 ABC   16:30-18:30    (no CME credit)                                                                                            


Study Group Session:  Cardiac MR

Room 254 ABC   16:30-18:30    (no CME credit)                                                                                            



MRS: Normal Metabolism & Systems Under Stress

Room 150 AG      16:30-18:30                                              Moderators:Truman R. Brown & Dennis W. J. Klomp

16:30           0111.   The C57BL/6 Mouse Exhibits Sporadic Congenital Portosystemic Shunts

                                Cristina Cudalbu1, Valérie A. McLin2, Hongxia Lei1, 3, Joao M.N. Duarte1, 4, Anne-Laure Rougemont5, Graziano Oldani6, 7, Sylvain Terraz8, Christian Toso6, Rolf Gruetter9, 10

                                1Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Département de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent, Unité de Gastroentérologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland; 3University of Geneva , Geneva, Switzerland; 4University of Lausanne , Lausanne, Switzerland; 5Service de Pathologie Clinique, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland; 6Transplantation Division, Department of Surgery, University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 7University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 8Unité de radiologie abdominale, Service de Radiologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland; 9Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 10University of Lausanne, University of Geneva, Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland


Portosystemic shunting may be the most significant problem associated with C57BL/6 inbreeding both for its effect on gene expression in the central nervous system and its systemic repercussions.

16:42           0112.   Astrocyte Reactivity Is Associated with Decreased Levels of N-Acetyl-Aspartate in the Absence of Neurodegeneneration in the Rat Brain

                                Maria-Angeles Carrillo-de Sauvage1, 2, Lucile Ben Haim1, 2, Julien Valette1, 2, Carole Escartin1, 2

                                1CEA-MIRCen, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; 2CNRS URA 2210, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France


A decrease in the concentration of the neuronal metabolite NAA is usually interpreted as neuronal degeneration or dysfunction, although the molecular basis is still unknown. Reactive astrocytes are associated with degenerating or dysfunctional neurons and could indirectly modulate brain metabolite concentrations. In this study, we aimed at dissecting the MRS signature associated with astrocyte reactivity per se, using a model of selective astrocyte activation through lentiviral gene transfer of the cytokine CNTF, in absence of detectable effects on neurons. We show that, contrary to the classic interpretation, a decrease in NAA can occur in absence of neurodegeneration

16:54           0113.   7 T 1H Detects Human Brain Gutamate Concentration Changes in Response to Hypoglycemia: A Study of Diabetic Patients with and Without Hypoglycemia Unawareness

                                Melissa Terpstra1, Amir Moheet1, Anjali Kumar1, Lynn E. Eberly1, Elizabeth Seaquist1, Gulin Oz1

                                1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States


Hypoglycemia unawareness (HU) is a condition under which patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are unable to sense dangerously low blood glucose levels. Glutamate is thought to be involved in the mechanism of aberrant glucose sensing in HU. The goal of this project was to determine whether human brain glutamate concentrations respond differently to experimentally induced hypoglycemia in patients with T1D and HU than in patients with T1D without HU and healthy controls (n = 5 per group). Human brain glutamate concentration decreased (p &#8804; 0.02) after initiation of hypoglycemia in all three study groups.

17:06           0114.   Early Increases in Glu/Gln, Tau and TCho 1H MRS Resonances in vivo, Anticipate Later Imaging Repercussions of the Cerebral Inflammatory Response in a Mouse Model of LPS-Induced Endotoxemia

                                Ana Belen Martín-Recuero1, Agnieszka Krzyzanowska2, Pilar López-Larrubia1, Carlos Avendaño2, Sebastián Cerdán3

                                1Laboratorio de Modelos Animales, Instituto Investigaciones Biomédicas “Alberto Sols” CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain; 2Anatomy, Histology & Neuroscience, Medical School, Autonoma Univ. of Madrid, Spain, Madrid, Spain; 3Laboratorio de Modelos Animales, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas - CSIC, Madrid, Spain


Cerebral inflammation underlies the most morbid and prevalent neurological disorders, including cancer, ischemia or neurodegeneration. However, the inflammatory component remains difficult to differentiate from the intrinsic pathology by most bioimaging methods, since in-vivo biomarkers of the inflammatory phenotype have not been characterized. With this aim, we report a longitudinal MRI and MRS characterization of the cerebral inflammatory component developed after systemic administration of LPS, an inflammation model devoid of additional intrinsic pathologies. Our results revealed that inflammation is characterized by early, severe, spectroscopic changes in Glu/Gln, tCho, Tau and Lac resonances, anticipating those detected later by multi-parametric MRI.

17:18           0115.   23Na-MRI and EPT: Are Sodium Concentration and Electrical Conductivity at 298 MHz (7T) Related?

                                                Astrid L.H.M.W. van Lier1, Paul W. de Bruin2, Sebastian A. Aussenhofer3, Peter R. Luijten1, Jan J.W. Lagendijk1, Cornelis A.T. van den Berg1, Andrew G. Webb3

                                1Imaging Department, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands; 2Radiology, Clinical Physics, LUMC, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands; 3Radiology, C.J. Gortercentrum, LUMC, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands


The electrical conductivity at the Larmor frequency can be measured with electrical properties tomography (EPT). It is assumed that the conductivity at RF frequencies (>100 MHz) is not affected by impaired ion mobility (e.g. by cell membranes), but only by ion concentration. Comparing EPT-based conductivity maps and 23Na-MR images offers the possibility to investigate this hypothesis in vivo. Based on the graphical analysis of residuals, it is concluded that the conductivity of healthy brain tissue at 298 MHz can be described using a model derived for saline solutions. This might enable direct extraction of sodium concentrations from electrical conductivity images.

17:30           0116.   Chlorine (35Cl) MRI in Humans: Cl- Alterations Do Not Correspond to Disease-Related Na+ Changes

                                Armin M. Nagel1, Marc-André Weber2, 3, Frank Lehmann-Horn4, Karin Jurkat-Rott4, Alexander Radbruch3, 5, Reiner Umathum1, Wolfhard Semmler1

                                1Dpt. of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; 2Dpt. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 3Dpt. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; 4Division of Neurophysiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany; 5Dpt. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany


Chlorine (Cl-) is the most abundant anion in the human body and is involved in many physiological processes. In this work 35Cl images of different pathologies were acquired for the first time in humans. Results were compared to 23Na MRI. 35Cl MRI revealed different signal behavior compared to 23Na MRI. Thus, 35Cl MRI can complement 23Na MRI in clinical research and might enable a better analysis of (patho-)physiological processes in the future.

17:42           0117.   In Vivo Cardiac 1H MRS, 31P MRS, and MRI in Mouse Models of Increased Fatty Acid Oxidation with and Without Myocardial Lipid Accumulation

                                Desiree Abdurrachim1, Jolita Ciapaite1, Michel van Weeghel2, Bart Wessels1, Klaas Nicolay1, Sander M. Houten2, Jeanine J. Prompers1

                                1Biomedical NMR, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands; 2Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands


Using a combination of in vivo  1H MRS, 31P MRS, and MRI, we investigated the relative roles of cardiac lipotoxicity and impaired cardiac energetics in the development of cardiac dysfunction, using mouse models of increased fatty acid oxidation with and without myocardial lipid accumulation. In the mouse model with myocardial lipid accumulation, cardiac energy status was normal, whereas in the mouse model without myocardial lipid accumulation, cardiac energy status was reduced. Interestingly, in both mouse models, a similar degree of cardiac dysfunction was observed, suggesting that myocardial lipid accumulation and disturbances in cardiac energetics independently contribute to reduced cardiac performance.

17:54           0118.   Caloric Restriction Enhances Oxidative Brain Metabolism in Healthy Aging Detected by 1H[13C]MRS

                                Ai-Ling Lin1, 2, Daniel Coman3, Lihong Jiang3, Douglas L. Rothman3, Fahmeed Hyder3

                                1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States; 2Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States; 3Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States


Caloric restriction seems to increase the lifespan in rodents. In the study, we used in vivo 1H[13C] MRS to characterize the effect of caloric restriction  on rates of neuronal TCA cycle flux (VTCA,N) and total glutamatergic neurotransmission flux (Vcyc(tot)) from the glutamate and glutamine cycle in aged rats (24 months). We found that caloric restricted rats had significantly higher VTCA,N and Vcyc(tot) relative to controls, suggesting that caloric restricted rats had enhanced neuronal metabolism and that was similar to younger aged rats. This indicates that caloric restriction  may delay brain age-related metabolic reduction in rodents.

18:06           0119.   Rates of Human Hepatic Oxidative Metabolism Estimated in Vivo Using a Novel 13C-MRS Method

                                Douglas E. Befroy1, 2, Nimit Jain3, Kitt Falk Petesen2, Gerald I. Shulman2, 4, Douglas L. Rothman3, 5

                                1Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; 2Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; 3Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; 4Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; 5Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States


We have previously demonstrated that oxidative metabolism can be observed in human liver in vivo using 13C-MRS in conjunction with a novel 13C-labeling strategy. In this study we describe the implementation of this methodology to determine rates of hepatic TCA cycle flux and anaplerosis in healthy individuals. To accurately simulate the kinetics of 13C-label turnover and generate robust estimates of these fluxes we also developed a model of hepatic metabolism that includes phenomena which distinguish the liver from other tissues. These studies provide the first direct estimates of liver TCA cycle flux and anaplerosis in vivo.

18:18           0120.   Acetylcarnitine Turnover in Rat Skeletal Muscle Measured in Vivo Using Localized 13C NMR at 14.1 T

                                Jessica A. M. Bastiaansen1, Joao M.N. Duarte2, 3, Arnaud Comment4, Rolf Gruetter5, 6

                                1Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic Imaging, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3Department of Radiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Institute of Physics of Biological Systems, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 5Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic Imaging, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 6Department of Radiology, University of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland


Acetate has been widely used as a metabolic probe for measuring TCA cycle kinetics in vivo in skeletal muscle. To cross the mitochondrial membrane, acetate needs to be transformed into acetylcarnitine, a metabolite which has not been observed in vivo using non-hyperpolarized 13C MRS.  The aim was to detect the [2-13C]acetylcarnitine resonance in vivo using localized DEPT at 14.1T. This study demonstrates that at high field using a polarization transfer technique acetylcarnitine can be observed. This allows for a more detailed characterization of acetate oxidation in skeletal muscle in vivo and in studies of metabolic disorders where carnitine deficiency occurs.

Image Reconstruction

Room 151 AG      16:30-18:30                                          Moderators:Alexey Samsonov & Nicole E. Seiberlich

16:30           0121.   Slab Profile Encoding for Minimizing Venetian Blind Artifact in 3D Diffusion-Weighted Multislab Acquisition

                                Anh Tu Van1, Murat Aksoy1, Samantha J. Holdsworth1, Daniel Kopeinigg1, Sjoerd B. Vos2, Roland Bammer1

                                1Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States; 2Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands


Three-dimensional high-resolution diffusion imaging is feasible in terms of scan time when multislab acquisition is used. However, the main challenge of multislab acquisitions is the slab boundary artifacts caused by an imperfect slab-selective profile along the slice dimension. By reconstructing all the slab collectively using a SENSE-like method with the slab excitation profiles as the “sensitivity maps,” the slab boundary artifacts can be mitigated.

16:42           0122.   Accelerated Parallel Traveling Wave MR and Compressed Sensing Using a 2-Channel Transceiver Array

                                Maryam Vareth1, 2, Anita Flynn3, Wei Bian1, 2, Ye Li1, Daniel B. Vigneron1, 2, Sarah J. Nelson1, 2, Xiaoliang Zhang1, 2

                                1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States; 2UC Berkeley/UCSF Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, San Francisco, CA, United States; 3EECS, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States


Parallel imaging and compressed sensing for traveling wave MR is achievable with a very simple orthogonal microstrip-resonator antenna geometry.  We present experimental results with three known undersampling reconstruction algorithms

(GRAPPA, SPIRiT andL1-SPIRiT) at an acceleration factor of 1.8.

16:54           0123.   Separation of Two Simultaneously Encoded Slices with a Single Coil

                                Daniel B. Rowe1, 2, Andrew S. Nencka2, Andrzej Jesmanowicz2, James S. Hyde2

                                1Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, United States; 2Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States


Two MR image slices are simultaneously encoded and a single complex-valued aliased image is measured. From the single complex-valued image, the previously published magnitude-only and the current complex-valued image separation methods are applied. It is shown that the magnitude-only method can have challenges when the difference in phase of the reference images is close to zero. The complex-valued method works extremely well. Reconstructing complex-valued images are important for implementing complex-valued fMRI activation methods. The reconstruction of simultaneously acquired slices alleviates the necessity for slice timing correction and voxels in different slices are temporally aligned to produce proper connectivity maps.

17:06           0124.   Local Resolution Adaptation for Curved Slice Imaging

                                Hans Weber1, Gerrit Schultz1, Daniel Gallichan2, Jürgen Hennig1, Maxim Zaitsev1

                                1Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 2LIFMET, Ecole Polytéchnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland


The application of nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields for both excitation and geometrically matched encoding allows the acquisition of curved slices with adjustable shape and thus increases the flexibility of MRI. However, both spatially varying slice thickness and in-plane resolution resulting from the nonlinearity of the fields is an unwanted side effect for most applications. The purpose of this study is to reduce the spatial variation of the voxel sizes. This is obtained by applying a concept for alias-free undersampling previously developed for PatLoc imaging.

17:18           0125.   Simultaneous Multi-Slice Flyback Echo Planar Imaging with Auto-Calibration

                                Kangrong Zhu1, Adam Kerr1, John M. Pauly1

                                1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States


The Blipped-CAIPI technique performs simultaneous multi-slice EPI acquisition with reduced g-factor penalty, but usually requires external calibration scans for image reconstruction. In this work, a data acquisition scheme which does not need any external calibration scans is designed for simultaneous multi-slice EPI and is demonstrated in in vivo brain imaging. The internal auto-calibration in the proposed method minimizes the image artifacts introduced by the mismatch between the calibration data and the accelerated data. The reconstructed images of the proposed method can have higher SNR than the Blipped-CAIPI method if the internal auto-calibration signal is included in the final images.

17:30           0126.   Automated Selection of 2D-CAIPIRINHA Kernels and Application to 3D CE-MRA

                                Paul T. Weavers1, Eric A. Borisch1, Stephen J. Riederer1

                                1MR Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States


2D-CAIPIRINHA has been shown to reduce noise amplification when compared to traditional 2D-SENSE.  However at high acceleration (R&#8805;8) it is not clear which kernel will best accomplish this.  An automated method to select the optimal kernel in a receiver coil and patient-specific manner in less than ten seconds has been developed.  It has been validated with a  retrospective study of nine sets of 3D foot exams, as well as in a prospective 3D contrast-enhanced MRA study.

17:42           0127.   ESPIRiT Reconstruction Using Soft SENSE

                                Martin Uecker1, Patrick Virtue1, Shreyas S. Vasanawala2, Michael Lustig1

                                1Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States; 2Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States


Recently, a new technique to estimate sensitivity maps from the calibration data has been proposed (ESPIRiT). In the ideal case, this technique yields a single set of sensitivity maps, which can be used with SENSE. With data corruption, multiple sets of maps naturally appear when using this method. They correspond to additional